#What is Bahar treatment ?
Bahar treatment means withholding of water one to one and half months before
flowering with a view to give rest to the tree. It leads to more carbohydrate accumulation.
The choice of bahar depends upon availability of water, market and incidence of diseases &
There are three bahars taken in fruits crops.
I. Ambia bahar — Jan – Feb
II. Mrig bahar — June – July
III. Hasta bahar — Sept – Oct.
#What is training ?
When a plant tied or supported over a trellies or Pergola in certain fashion or some of
its parts are cut off with a view of giving the plant better frame work, the operation is called
as training systems.
There one three training systems :
(1) Central leader system : Trees are trained to form a trunk extend from ground to the
top of the trees, e.g., peach.
(2) Open centre system : The main stem is allowed to grow only up to a certain height
and is headed back with in a year of planning of tree, e.g., apple, plums.(Crop Production)
(3) Modified leader system : Intermediate between central leader and open centre system,
e.g., guava, fig.
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#What is pruning?
It is the art of removing certain portion of the plant with a view to divert the sap flow
towards the fruiting area present on the plant to produce more and superior quality of fruits.
There are two methods of pruning :
(1) Heading back : The terminal portion of every twig, canes and shoots are cut, retaining
basal potion, It is practiced in hedges, ornamentals, grapes etc.
(2) Thinning out : Some twigs, canes or shoots are removed from their point of origin and
retaining others. It is practiced in fruit trees.(Crop Production)
#What are the types of vegetable gardens?
Vegetable gardens divided into seven types according to purpose.
(a) Kitchen garden or Home garden : The main purpose is to provide the family daily
with fresh vegetables rich in nutrients and energy.
(b) Market garden : The main purpose is to supply the vegetables for the local market.
( c) Truck garden : In which produces special crops in the large quantity for distant
market e.g. potato, onion.
(d) Vegetable forcing : In which the vegetables are produced out of their normal season,
e.g., in glass house.
(e) Vegetable garden for processing : In this preservation of vegetable for consuming
them in unavailable seasons.
(f) Vegetable garden for seed production : Which are concerned with the good seed
(g) Floating vegetable garden : This types are seen on the Dal lake of the Kashmir
valley. Floating base is prepared and seedlings are transplanted.(Crop Production)
#What are the advantages of growing horticulture crops?
India has a wide variety of climate and soils on which a large number of horticultural
crops such as fruits, vegetables, potato, tropical tuber crops, mushroom, ornamental,
medicinal and aromatic plants, plantation crops, spices, cashew, cocoa and betelvine are
grown. Diversification in horticulture is a best option as there are several advantages of
growing horticultural crops.
These crops :
• produce higher biomass than field crops per unit area resulting in efficient utilization of
• Are highly remunerative for replacing subsistence farming and thus elevate poverty
level in rainfed, dryland, hilly, arid and coastal agro-ecosystems.
• Have potential for development of wastelands through planned strategies.
• Need comparatively less water than food crops.
• Provide higher employment opportunity.
• Are important for nutritional security.
• Are environment – friendly.
• Are high-value crops with high potential of value-addition.
• Have high potential for foreign exchange earnings.
• Make higher ontribution to GDP.(Crop Production)
#What are the research infrastructure in horticulture exists in thecountry?
At present, following research infrastructures in horticulture exists in the country under
the National Agriculture Research System (NARS).
• 10 central institutes with 27 regional stations.
• 10 National Research Centres on important crops.
• 9 multidisciplinary Institutes working on horticulture crops.
• 15 All India co-ordinated Research projects with 215 centers.
• One state Agricultural university in horticulture and Forestry.
• 25 State Agricultural University with Horticulture discipline.
• 5 network projects.
• 330 adhoc projects.
• 29 revolving fund projects/Schemes.
1n addition, a number of institutes under CSIR and Ministry of Commerce are also
devoted to research on ornamental, medicinal and aromatic crops besides on aspects of post
#Which are the planting systems for fruit Crops ?
• Square system
• Rectangular system
• Triangular system
• Hexagonal system
• Quincunx system (diagonal system)
• Contour system
• Terrace system.
#What is AVRDC?
Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre Taiwan, was established in 1971,
with main objective was to improve production and marketing of vegetable crops in the
lowland tropics. It is an international institute for vegetable research, development and
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