RYE ( Secale cereale )
It is a minor rabi cereal. It is mainly used as green fodder crop, pasture crop, green manure crop and cover crop. The flour of rye is mixed with wheat flour for making bread. The straw is used for bedding and packing material.
Origin: Western Asia and Southern former USSR.
Area and distribution: In the world, it is cultivated in an area of 16.3 m.ha. with a productivity of 40.7 m.t. About 60% of area is in former USSR, followed by Germany, Austria, Hungary, USA, Canada, Poland, Turkey etc. In India, it is grown in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
Climate: It can withstand all adverse weather conditions except heat. It is commonly called as “winter hardy cereal”.
Soil: It is the only one rabi cereal best suited for sandy soil.
Season: The best seasons are winter and spring seasons.
Varieties: For winter season, the varieties like Athens and Abruzzes for Forage type, the varieties like Rosen, Dakold and Balba for grain type are recommended. For spring season, the varieties like Prolific and Merced are recommended for grain type.
Time of sowing: The time of sowing is October for forage crop, November for grain crop and August for pasture or green manure or cover crop.
Seed rate: The seed rate is 75–95 kg/ha for forage and 55–65 kg/ha for grain crop.
Land preparation: Summer ploughing is recommended. Stubble mulching is recommended to over come the erosion. Method of sowing is either by broadcasting or drill sowing. Depth of the sowing is 2.5 cm. Row spacing is 20–25 cm.
Fertilizers: It responds to 30–90 kg N, 35–55 kg P2O5 and 65 kg K2O. ‘N’ is applied in two splits. Application of BHC 10% or Aldrin 5% at 15–20 kg/ha for termite control is recommended.
Water management: Irrigations are recommended for six stages viz., sowing irrigation, 20–25 DAS (CRI), 40–45 DAS (Tillering), 70–75 DAS (late jointing stage), flowering stage and dough stage (115th day). CRI and heading are the critical stages. If only one irrigation is available, irrigation at CRI is to be done. If two irrigations are available, irrigation at CRI and flowering stages are to be given. If 3 irrigations are available, irrigations at CRI, Late jointing and flowering stages are to be given.
Harvest: For forage crops, two harvests at 50–55th day and at dough stage are done. For forage cum grain crop, harvesting at 50–55th day is done and then it is allowed for seed set.
Yield: If it is for fodder purpose, the fodder yield is 50–55 t/ha. If it is for dual crop, the yield will be 25–t/ha fodder, 2.5 t/ha grain and 2.5 t/ha straw.
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