Botanical Name : Vinca rosea
Common Name : Sadabahar
Family : Apocynaceae
As an ornamental plant, it is appreciated for its hardiness in dry and nutritionally deficient conditions, popular in subtropical gardens where temperatures never fall below 5 °C to 7 °C, and as a warm-season bedding plant in temperate gardens. It is noted for its long flowering period, throughout the year in tropical conditions, and from spring to late autumn, in warm temperate climates.
Full sun and well-drained soil are preferred. Because of its hardy nature they can be grown in almost all type of soil, they can grow even in infertile soil. Doesn’t use too fertile as it will affect the flowering of plant. The pH ranges from 6 to 6.5 which is acidic is suitable for plant growth.
For periwinkle cultivation, it does not required well fertile soil as it can grow on even infertile soil. But for its good growth it can grow on organic soil. Depth of 6 inches bed should be dug and the thin layer i.e. 1 inch layer of dried or compost manure is added before planting, the good time for the cultivation of this crop is September to February.
Time of sowing
Good time for the cultivation of this crop is September to February.
The plant spacing should be 6-9 inches from one plant to another
Method of sowing
Transplanting seedling or root cutting in main field.
The seed rate is approximately 2,000 seeds for 50 square feet land.
NURSERY MANAGEMENT AND TRANSPLANTING
In late spring or summer, propagation is done by taking 5-8 cm long tip cuttings. Trimming should be done immediately after cutting then dip the root cutting in hormone rooting powder so as to kill the harmful microbes present in soil. Sowing should be done in well moistened soil with plant spacing of 30cm. The rooting occurs normally in 3-4 weeks and then they are treated as a mature plant.
In late winter or early spring, seed sowing should be done. Few seeds are taken and are sown in tray having moistened root mixture. Cover the tray with thin cloth so that moisture retain in tray. Keep the tray in bright light.
The seeds start germinating in 2-3 weeks then uncover the tray and start giving moderate water to the seedlings. Dont overwater the seedlings just give some amount of water so that soil gets wet.
Seedling are ready for transplantation when they attain the height of 1cm transfer them into the pots of minimum 8cm round pots.
In hot and dry seasons or during growing season water should be given regularly for the good growth of plant. Apply irrigation at the interval of 15-15 days after every 3 months. Do not overwater as this will harm the inflorescence of the plant.
Disease and their control:
Black root rot: It is caused by fungus Thielaviopsis basicol. This symptom should be diagnosed when there is chlorosis i.e. yellowing of leaves, stunted growth and wilting/curling of leaves is seen. The symptoms infect the roots by developing dark spots on it.
Application of fungicides drenches i.e. thiophanate methyl, triflumizole or fludioxonil should be given to prevent from this disease.
Damping-off: It causes rotting of seeds as a result the seedling will die or there will be infected seedling.
Pythium root rot: It attacks the tips of the roots and then the infection goes upward within the root system.
Phytophthora root rot: The disease causes yellowing or purpling of leaf, stunted growth, wilting and then plant death.
Rhizoctonia crown rot: The disease causes sudden wilting and death of the plant
Application of heavy spray/drench of fludioxonil, iprodione, PCNB, thiophanate methyl or triflumizole is to be done to reduce development of disease and its spread.
Plants are ready after every 12 months for planting. Harvesting is done at interval of 3 months. The roots, leaves, seeds and flowers are collected separately and are used for medicinal purposes or for vegetative propagation.
Long before modern researcher learned of the plant’s valuable and varied properties, people in faraway places were using the Madagascar periwinkle for a host of medicinal purposes.
In India, they treated wasp sting with the juice from the Hawai’i they prescribed an extract of the boiled plant to arrest bleeding.
In Central America and parts of South America, they made a gargle to ease soar throats and chest ailments and laryngitis.
In Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica and other islands, an extract of the flower was commonly administered as an eyewash for the eyes of infants.
In Africa, leaves are used for menorrhagia and rheumatism.
Surinamese boil ten leaves and ten flowers together for diabetes.
Bahamians take flower decoction for asthma and flatulence, and the entire plant for tuberculosis.
In Mauritius, the leaves infusion s given for dyspepsia and indigestion.
In Vietnam it is taken for diabetes and malaria.
Curacao and Bermuda natives take the plant for high blood pressure.
Indochinese use the stalks and leaves for dysmenorrhea.