After harvest the seeds need to be processed by various methods in order to maintain the physical purity and also to increase the shelf life. This should be done before seeds are taken for storage.
Cleaning: Stem bits and chaff collected along with the seeds will harbour insects which would damage stored seeds. In order to prevent such damage, cleaning either by wet method or dry method should be followed.
i. Wet cleaning – Plants which carry seeds in their moist flesh can be cleaned by this method. Seeds scooped from the flesh of a ripened fruit should be collected in a vessel and rubbed vigorously with coarse sand to remove flesh around the seeds. Then seeds are taken in a sieve and washed repeatedly under running water to remove the bits and pieces of flesh and mucilage. After such cleaning seeds should be dried for 10 days before storage. E.g. Cucumber, Tomato etc.
ii. Dry cleaning – This method is used for the matured seeds in a dry capsule / pod. Either the dry pods can be harvested individually or the whole plant with the pod is pulled out and shade dried, threshed for the collection of seeds. After threshing seeds are gently crushed or rolled and winnowed before storing. E.g. Paddy, Millets, Pulses, Oilseeds etc.
Winnowing: It is an ancient method to remove the chaff from the seeds by tossing them in the air. Elongated flat baskets are used for winnowing. It helps to remove stem bits, old petals, husks and other parts of the flower and debris mixed with the seeds. There are also mechanical winnowers available.
Sieving: Sieves with different gauge sizes are used for sieving in order to remove the debris and chaff from the seeds. Large debris retains in the larger sieve, whereas the dust materials smaller than the seeds is removed in the small size sieve.
Drying of Seeds: Seed drying is the process of lowering the moisture content of the seed in order to improve the vigour and viability of the seed and thereby increasing the storage life. It helps to keep the seeds free from pest and disease incidence. Drying should be done at a lower temperature. During drying, first the moisture from the seed surface will be evaporated and the moisture from inner layers of the seed is transferred to the surface for further drying. Various drying methods involved are:
a. Natural drying / Sun drying: it is a common method of drying followed in the field or threshing yard by using the radiant energy of the sun. Seeds should be spread in a thin layer to enhance the uniform drying of the seeds. Seeds with high moisture content should be shade dried and later exposed to sun drying. Sun dried seeds should not be kept open in the threshing yard during night times, since it absorbs moisture from the air. The main advantage of natural drying is that it is an easy and cheap method. But there are many disadvantages like slow drying, requirement of a large floor area, loss due to pest and disease attack and high weather risks. Sun drying is advisable only in the morning and evening hours. Drying in mid noon causes damage to seed quality.
b. Artificial / Mechanical drying by using forced natural / heated air: This type of drying can be carried out inside the storage godown itself. Godowns should be provided with ventilators for circulation of outside dry air with the help of blowers and thereby the seeds are dried. It is possible only during the dry seasons. In some cases, drying is done by passing the heated outside air with the use of burner heater. This principle is followed in most of the present day dryers. Main advantage of this method is that drying is uniform and done within a short span of time. But the cost of the equipment and fuel requirement is very expensive.
Tests to ascertain the dryness of seeds: Simple traditional methods are involved in order to ascertain whether the seeds are properly dried or not. Thin seeds are twisted between the fingers, thick seeds can be bitten by the front tooth and the small seeds can be squeezed between the finger nails. If they break with a cracking sound, it shows that the seeds are dried well.
What is seed village?
A village, wherein trained group of fanners are involved in production ‘of seeds of various crops and cater to the needs of themselves, fellow fanners of the village and fanners of neighbouring villages in appropriate time and at affordable cost is called “a seed village”.
- Organizing seed production in cluster (or) compact area
- Replacing existing local varieties with new high yielding varieties.
- Increasing the seed production
- To meet the local demand, timely supply and reasonable cost
- Self-sufficiency and self-reliance of the village
- Increasing the seed replacement rate
- Seed is available at the door steps of farms at an appropriate time
- Seed availability at affordable cost even lesser than market price
- Increased confidence among the farmers about the quality because of known source of production
- Producer and consumer are mutually benefited
- Facilitates fast spread of new cultivars of different kinds
Establishment of seed villages
The present programme of seed village scheme is having two phases
I. Seed production of different crops
Seed village concept is to promote the quality seed production of foundation and certified seed classes. The area which is suitable for raising a particular crop will be selected, and raised with single variety of a kind.
Selection of are
The area with the following facilities will be selected.
1. Irrigation facilities
2. Suitability of climatic conditions to raise the crop for more than one season
3.Labour availability and Knowledge of local farmers on that particular crop
4. Occurrence or outbreak of pest and diseases
5. Past history of the area for suitability to raise seed crop
6. Average rainfall and distribution
7. Closeness to a urban area for easy movement of seed and other inputs
Suitable area for seed production will be identified by the Scientists. The foundation/ certified seeds or University labeled seeds will be supplied by the University through Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) and Research Stations at 50% subsidy cost to the identified farmers in the area. The farmers will use these quality seeds and take up their own seed production in a small area (1 acre) for their own use. The crops are Rice, Pulses and Oilseeds.
Capacity building: In order to harness the synergy between technologies and the community participation, special emphasis is being given to build farmer’s capacity to produce quality seeds. A training on seed production and seed technology to the identified farmers for the seed crops grown in the seed villages will be given for technology empowerment of farmers.
Duration of the training: 3 days First one day training: At the time of sowing Training on : Isolation distance, sowing practices, seed treatment, and other agronomic practices. Second one day training : During flowering Training on: Identifying off types and removal, maintenance of seed plots, plant protection measures, maturity status and harvesting methods. Third one day training: After harvest Training on: Seed cleaning, grading, seed treating, bagging and storage aspects, seed sampling and sending to seed testing laboratory for analysis. A seed grower forum will be organized for further empowerment of technology and marketing.
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