# Broccoli can flower and set seed freely at an elevation of 1000-1200 m above MSL.
# The seed production of Brussel’s sprouts is done in the Himalayas at 1200 m above MSL.
# Cabbage requires a cool climate for bolting. Only with the cooler temperature, the cabbage can enter a dormant period, after which it bolt and initiate the seed stalks and flowers.
# Vernalization is required for flowering and seed setting in cabbage, Brussels sprouts, etc.
# Vernalization is NOT required for cauliflower and broccoli for flowering.
# In India, cabbage seed production is possible only in hills.
# Cabbage is biennial for seed production i.e. it takes two seasons to produce seeds. In the first season, head is produced and the seed sets in the following year.
# Certified seed production: done in-situ (direct sowing)
# Nucleus seed production: done by transplanting the seedlings from the nursery to main field.
# In transplanting method of seed production, NOT the 4-6 weeks old plants are transplanted. The mature plant with the head is uprooted, leaves on the main stem are removed and the entire stem below the head is buried inside the soil so that the head rests just above the soil surface.
# There are three methods of cabbage seed production Stump method Stump with central core method Head intact method
# Stump method: Crop becomes fully matures in first season. For second season/seed crop, the head is removed and the beheaded main stem (stump) is planted.
# Stump with central core method: Crop becomes fully matures in first season. The sides of the head or chopped with perpendicular cuts, leaving the core undamaged. This stump with core of the head is planted in the second season for seed production.
# Head intact method: Crop becomes fully matures in first season. In the second season, the entire head is kept intact, only a cross cut is given to ease the stalk emergence.
# The stump method produces weak flower stalks. Thus, stump method requires staking whereas staking is not necessary for other two methods.
# Stump with central core method is an improvement over the stump method.
# The lowest seed yield is observed in head intact method than the other two methods.
# A Boric acid spray (50 ppm) at flowering stage increases the seed yield.
# First tropical variety of cabbage that set seeds in sub-tropical clime (North Indian plains): Pusa Ageti.
# In India, the seed production of cauliflower (early, mid-season and late maturity groups) is possible only in temperate regions of the country.
# Himachal Pradesh produces quality cauliflower seeds, owing to its climatic conditions.
# In India, the seed to seed method (in situ method) is recommended for seed production of cauliflower.
# Optimum sowing time for Cauliflower seed crop: August
# Cauliflower Seed rate (for seed crop): 300-500 g ha-1
# In Indian plains, the seed production of cauliflowers is done using the early cultivars.
# In cauliflower, scooping is done to facilitate the floral stalk initiation.
# Under Indian plains’ condition, the scooping of curd is not required to facilitate the emergence of floral stalk.
# The tropical cauliflower cultivars developed by IIHR, Arka Vimal and Arka Spoorthi produce seeds under tropical conditions.
# The siliques are harvested when they turn brown.
# Dr.Harbhajan Singh pioneered and standardized the seed production technology of cole crops.
# A minimum of three inspections are recommended for cole crops
Before the marketable stage
At the marketable stage
At the flowering stage
# Isolation distance
Foundation seed: 1600 m
Certified seed: 1000 m
# Seed borne diseases of Cole vegetables
Black leg (Leptosphaeria maculans)
Black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv, campestris)
Soft rot (Erwinia carotovora)
# Recommended seed moisture: 7.0 % (for both foundation and certified seeds)
Recommended seed moisture for vapour-proof containers: 5.0 % (for both foundation and certified seed.
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