Seed treatment is the application of fungicide, insecticide, or a mixture of both to seeds in order to disinfect and disinfect them against seed-borne or soil-borne pathogenic organisms, as well as storage insects. It also refers to exposing seedlings to sun radiation, immersion in conditioned water, and other methods. The seed treatment is carried out in order to gain the following advantages.
Types of Seed Treatment:
1) Seed disinfection: Seed disinfection is the process of removing fungus spores that have established themselves within the seed coat or deeper tissues. The fungicidal medication must really reach the seed in order to destroy the fungus that is there for effective control.
2) Seed disinfestation: The eradication of surface-borne organisms that have contaminated but not infected the seed surface is referred to as seed disinfestation. Dips, soaks, and fungicides sprayed as dust, slurry, or liquid have all been proven to be effective.
3) Seed Protection: Seed protection is used to protect seeds and early seedlings against organisms in the soil that would otherwise cause seed deterioration before germination.
Advantages of seed treatment
1.Protects germinating seeds and seedlings against infections and insects carried by the soil and seeds.
2.Enhancement of seed germination.
3.Early and consistent establishment and development are essential.
4.Improves legume crop nodulation.
5.It’s preferable to soil and foliar application.
6.Even in the face of adversity, a consistent crop stands. (less/high moisture)
Procedure for Seed Treatment
The word “seed treatment” encompasses both goods and techniques. One of the following forms of seed treatment can be used.
- Seed dressing: This is the most popular seed treatment procedure. The seed is dressed with a dry formulation or a slurry or liquid formulation if it is wet treated. Dressings can be used on the farm as well as in the workplace. Pesticides can be blended with seed in low-cost clay pots, or seed can be placed on a polythene sheet and the needed amount of chemical dusted over the seed lot and mixed mechanically by farmers.
- Seed coating: To improve adhesion to the seed, a specific binder is employed with the formulation. Coatings necessitate modern treatment technologies on the part of the business.
- Seed pelleting: The most advanced Seed Treatment Technology, which alters a seed’s physical form to improve palatability and handling. Pelletizing is the most expensive application since it necessitates specialized application apparatus and procedures.
Seed treatment in important crops
1) Sorghum: Thirum or 300 mesh sulphur. Seed is coated in seed dressing drum or earthen pot @ 3.4 g/kg seed against smut disease.
2) Bajara: Brine solution treatment is given @ 20% against eat got and to discard light & diseased seed.
3) Paddy: Seed is treated with brine solution @ 3% against blast of paddy and to discard unfilled seed.
a) Cow dung slurry treatment: Seed is rubbed with cow dung slurry in 1:1 proportion of dung and soil for convenience in sowing or Seed is delinted by treating the seed with conc. H2SO4 for 2 min. for convenience in sowing.
b) Seed is treated with organo mercurial compound like ceresin, agrosan @ 3 g or Thirum @ 5g against seed borne disease like anthracnose.
5) Coriander & Garlic: Seed is rubbed to split the seed for even sowing.
6) Small seeded crops like Sesamum, bajara, tobacco, etc: Seed is mixed with fine sand or soil for even sowing of seed in the field.
a) Seed is dipped in 1% Thiourea solution for breaking the seed dormancy.
b) Seed is dipped in streptomycin solution @ 200 g in 100 lit. Water for 1 hour against Ring rots disease.
8) Legume crops like Mung, Urad, Soybean, Etc.
a) Seed is treated with Thirum @ 3 g/kg seed against seed borne disease.
b) Seed is treated with Rhizobium culture @ 250g/10kg seed for ‘N’ fixation & better nodulation.
a) Hot water treat (500C) or hot air treat. (540C) is given to sets for 2 hrs. Against grassy shoot & other diseases.
b) Sets are treated with OMC 6% @ 500g in 100 lit. Water by dipping for 5 min. against smut & increase germination Or Bavistin @ 200g in 100 lit. For 5 min.
10) Wheat & Oilseed crops: Seed is coated with Thirum or Bavistin @ 5 g/kg seed against seed borne diseases.