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Sexual and ASexual Plant Propagation

Sexual and Asexual Plant Propagation

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Sexual and ASexual Plant Propagation

Sexual and Asexual Plant Propagation

Sexual and Asexual Plant Propagation: Unlike agronomic plants, many horticultural plants are troublesome for seed propagation methods. Horticultural plants have annual to perennial life cycle and seed propagation is not economical. In such cases vegetative propagation is more effective. It is done by using various plant parts for propagation. Plant propagation is the process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots and other plant parts. Plant propagation also includes the artificial or natural dispersal of plants. Broadly sexual propagation and asexual propagation are two method of plant propagation.

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(Sexual and Asexual Plant Propagation)

 Sexual Propagation:

Propagation of the plants by using seed as propagation material is called as sexual propagation. It has its own advantages over asexual method as follows. It is simplest, easiest and the most economical process among various types of plant propagation. Some plants, trees, vegetables or fruits species can propagate only through sexual propagation, E.g., Papaya, Marigold, and Tomato, cucurbitaceous etc. This type of propagation leads to better crop species that are stronger, disease-resistant and have longer life span. They are hardy with deep root system, so they are vigorous in growth. Viral transmission can be prevented in this type of propagation.

(Sexual and Asexual Plant Propagation)

Sexual propagation is responsible for production of large number of crops and that too with different varieties. It is the only propagation process in which resultant offspring have genetic variation and exhibit diversity of characters from parent crops. This genetic variation is responsible for continuous evolution that keeps on producing better & better offspring. We can store the seed easily and easy to transport from one place to another place. Seed Propagation is necessary when vegetative propagation is unsuccessful or expensive e.g. We can see in the Papaya, Coconut and Arecanut. The Polyembryony: The phenomenon of production of more than one seedling from a single seed produces true to type, nucellar
embryonic seedlings which could be used as rootstock for uniform performance, e.g. In mango
different type of polyembryonic rootstock is there viz., Bappakai, olour, vallaikolumban , Chandrashekaran, Kurukkan, Mulgaon, Bellary, Goa, it is also common in Jamun, and Citrus
fruit crops. Hybrids can be developed by sexual propagation. Rootstock is raised by seed. E.g.
Rangpur lime, Jambheri etc.When seedlings are required large number seed propagation is easy
means.

(Sexual and Asexual Plant Propagation)

Disadvantage of Sexual Propagation

Seedlings propagated through sexual propagation are unlikely to have same genetic characteristics as that of parent plants. Some plant species do not produce viable seeds and hence are unsuitable to propagate for the same. Plants that do not have seeds can’t be propagated through this process. The Progenies are not true to type and so they may become inferior. In the commercial orchards, it is necessary to have uniform quality, growth and yielding capacities and such types of plants are not produced through seed. Seedlings have long juvenile period. The seed must be sown a fresh, i.e. immediately after extraction. eg. Orange plant raised as seedling will take 8-10 years for bearing while budded plants come to bearing within 3-4 years. Seedling tree are large size, and hence cost of harvesting, pruning, training and crop protection increases.

(Sexual and Asexual Plant Propagation)

Asexual Propagation

Asexual propagation refers to the multiplication of any plant part from any vegetative parts like, root, stem, leaves etc. it has included several methods such as cuttings, layering, and grafting. It is also known as vegetative propagation or clonal propagation.

Advantages of vegetative propagation:

1) Progenies are true to type hence uniform growth, and fruit quality.
2) Certain rootstocks are resistant or tolerant to the adverse environmental factors such as frost and adverse soil factors like salinity or alkanity Ex: frost resistant rootstock is Trifoliate orange (Ponicirus trifoliate), salinity resistant rootstock is Rangpur lime.
3) The ability of certain rootstock to resistant to pest and disease Ex: Apples when grafted on rootstocks Merton 778, 779 are resistant to wolly aphids.
4) Vegetatively propagated fruit frees comes bearing earlier.
5) Vegetativly propagated plants are generally dwarf in nature than seedlings. Dwarf tree facilities pruning, spraying and harvesting and more number of plants can be accommodated per unit area.
6) Novelty can be developed by grating or budding of many varieties on Single plant Ex. Rose, mango.
7) Plant produces seedless fruit.
8) Damaged part of tree trunk or rotting of rost can be repaired by bridge grafting or inarching to save Plant.

(Sexual and Asexual Plant Propagation)

Disadvantages:

1) Plants are not vigorous and they are short lived
2) No new varieties are developed or evolved.
3) These methods are more expensive, laborious and time consuming.

(Sexual and Asexual Plant Propagation)

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