Silvicultural System of Concentrated Regeneration
a) Clear Felling System:
i) Clear Felling System:
Defined as a Silvicultural System in which equal or equi-productive mature crop fields are sequentially clean felled in one operation to be regenerated most usually, artificially but occasionally naturally.
a) Deptt. plantation
a) Seed kept in the region;
b) Seed brought in from outside.
Advantages of Clear Felling System:
1) Easy to do and does not need a high level of competence in marking for felling.
2) Higher yield per unit area, lower cost of felling and extractions
3) Increasing the percentage of important species and adding exotics that develop quickly.
4) Simple oversight of all activities (regeneration, conservation, and extraction).
5) There is no risk of fresh crops being harmed.
6) Lowers the cost of regeneration operations and reduces the rotation time.
7) The coupe (area) will be ready for planting in the near future.
8) Trees and boles that are cleaner and more cylindrical.
9) This is an excellent candidate for mechanisation.
10) By the conclusion of the second year, the success or failure of the regeneration activity is obvious.
Disadvantages of Clear Felling System:
1) Most Artifcial
2) Great danger of deterioration soil and the soil erosion increases due to exposer and area till the canopy closes
3) Problems of invitation of weeds and grasses / fre hazards
4) Less resistant to damages by wind (even aged crop)
5) Devastated appearance of large clear felled areas
6) It sacrifces all the immature trees when applied first
ii) The Clear-Strip System:
It is characterised as a Silvicultural system in which clean felling is done in the shape of strips that move throughout the regeneration area in one direction (against the prevailing wind direction). Progressive strip system is another name for it.
Advantages of the Clear-Strip System:
Furthermore, Clear Felling does not degrade the land and preserves the visual charm of the place, while it is difficult to guard against roaming, grazing, and other threats.
iii) The Alternate Strip System:
It’s characterised as a Silvicultural System in which clear felling is done in the shape of strips, and clean filled strips alternate with unfelled strips of identical width, but these can be thinner or broader at times.
b) Shelter Wood Systems:
The Shelter Wood System is named after the regeneration that occurs under the protection of the over wood, and the systems of successive regeneration forestry are named after the removal of the over wood in two or more operations.
To put it another way, shelter wood systems entail the progressive removal of the complete stand in two or more subsequent sessions that span a portion of rotation.
i) The Uniform System: Described as silvicated systems in which the canopy is opened uniformly for regeneration throughout the whole compartment in a single operation.
Advantages of the Uniform System:
1) Soil degradation and erosion are unlikely to occur.
2) Tree marking and emotion are straightforward.
3) Weed invitation is not theirs.
4) Young plants are shielded from harsh environmental conditions such as frost, cold, and wind.
5) Success in establishing better species
6) Insect injuries are significantly minimised.
7) A new crop emerges before the old one is harvested, shortening the cycle.
8) Minimal reduction in potential wood production
9) Convenient oversight
Disadvantages of the Uniform System:
1) Damages to regenerated seedlings may occur while the sense of preserved trees is maintained.
2) Knowledge on how to keep the canopy / shade in good shape
ii) The Group Systems:
Silviculture systems in which regeneration felling is done in scattered groups rather than evenly over the compartment.
Advantages the Group Systems:
1) In contrast to Uniform Systems, young crop development occurs in a more natural manner.
2) Frost protection and insolation protection
3) During the early stages of regeneration, damage from tree felling is prevented by limiting the fall of trees towards the un-flled frost.
Disadvantages the Group Systems:
1) It is difficult in steep terrain areas.
2) It’s difficult to market feeling trees.
3) Control and supervision become difficult.
4) Significant regeneration losses in hilly locations owing to rolling/ sliding logs of timber
5) Requires a lot of effort
6) Isn’t doable in India 30 years in one location
iii) The Sheltered Wood Strip System:
Silviculture system in which regeneration and felling are done in strips from one side of the compartments to the other, moving against the wind.
iv) Strip and Group System:
Modification of the sheltering wood strip system, in which fellings are done in strips instead of uniform systems, resulting in a group system.
v) The Irregular Sheltered wood System:
Silviculture system in which regeneration falls on a group system pattern, however the crop produced is unevenly aged or irregular due to the protracted regeneration time.
vi) Indian Irregular Shelter Wood:
Silviculture system in which the crop to be regenerated is opened up sporadically, resulting in an unevenly aged crop. It allows for the retention of groups of well-grown poles and juvenile trees as part of the future crop, as well as the use of selected felling on step or difficult areas of the compartment under consistent systems.
vii) Agner’s Blender System :
Silviculture system in which regeneration felling is done in short strips that run east-west and grow from a north-south item. Side protection for regeneration was provided, as well as changes to protected strip systems.
viii) Wedge Systems:
Silviculture system in which the strip is situated in the center of its length, facing the wind, rather than at one end.