Soil Science One Liner
Soil Science One Liner
● India is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizers in the world, ranking at ‘Third’ (next after China and U.S.A.), where in 9·5% production of NPK—fertilizer nutrients and 10·6% consumption is made of the world here.
● One sixth of the world population (about 16·7%) lives in India.
● In India, nearly 1,736 crore tonnes N,P,K plant nutrients are consumed, its cost is around 35,000 crore rupees.
● The per hectare fertilizer—NPK nutrients consumption (during 2010-11) 144·14 kg, at national level, which varied from state to state; like 241·60 kg in Punjab, 57·91 kg in Rajasthan, 209·38 kg in Haryana, 132·10 kg in U.P. and below 5 kg only in Arunachal/ Sikkim/Nagaland say NER etc.(Soil Science One Liner)
● N, P, K ratio has improved due to various promotions by the Govt. which was 4·3 : 2·0 : 1 N, P, K in 2009-10 and 6·4 : 2·5 : 1 in 2002-03, as against 9·5 : 3·2 : 1 in 1992-93 (at fertilizer decontrolled stage)
● Urea contains 0·5 to 0·8% Biuret (maximum 1%)—NH2CONHCONH2 and above this limit, it is harmful (burning) to crop; which is added during urea manufacturing in the factory. Generally 2% urea is sprayed on crops.
● The Father of Agriculture Chemistry is known to German Scientist Leibig (1803-1873).
● Thiourea contains 36·8%N, which has toxic effect on some plants.
● Clostridium bacteria acts in absence of air.
● Dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata) plant has stem nodulation upto 1-1·5 m height and can fix 180-210 kg N/hectare in soil after the deposition.(Soil Science One Liner)
● Azolla is a fern and fix 40-45 kg N/hectare in rice fields.
● Blue Green Algae (BGA) is a microvegetation, belonging to thalophyta group; that fixes 25-30 kg N/hectare through atmospheric nitrogen.
● Mycorrhiza is a fungus. Those are found in plant roots. Its presence increases nodulation and helps in N-fixation, besides P-absorption.
● Nearly 80,000 tonnes atmospheric nitrogen per hectare is above the ground, that can be utilized after fixing from pulses and biofertilizers.
● The average yield is increased upto 20% in pulses through Rhizobium culture; 18% in maize through Azospirillum; upto 25% in wheat, potato, mustard, cotton, sugarcane through Azotobacter; 20-25% in rice through BGA and 30% in rice through Azolla. (Soil Science One Liner)
● There is direct saving of 20-25 kg N/hectare in related crops like—wheat, rice, pearlmillet etc. through the use of Azotobacter / Azospirillum, say; one bag of urea (50 kg).
● The soil pH range in acidic or alkaline reaction is expressed as; Acidity—Strongly acidic-below 4·5; very high acidic—4·5-5·0, high acidic—5·1-5·5; general acidic—5·6-6·0; light acidic 6·1-6·5 Neutral—6·6-7 (say 7·0). Alkalinity—Light alkaline—7·4-7·8, general alkaline 79-8·4, high alkaline 8·5-9·0 and very high alkaline—9·1 and above.
● Book ‘Soil and Water Conservation Research in India’—written by Dr. V. V. Dhruv Narayan. (Soil Science One Liner)
● Said to be the Father of; ‘Soil Testing Technique’—M.L. Troug and ‘Soil MicroBiology’—S.N. Winogradsky.
● In Atmosphere; CO2 -300 ppm; N-79% and O2 – 20·97% are present
● pF is the anti-log of soil moisture tension, which represents height (cm) of any water column.
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