Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum)
• Also known as Noble cane, developed by T.S. Venkataraman.
• The word “Saccharam” derived from “Sanskrit” word sarkara” which means sugar.
• Sugar industry is the largest agro based processing industry after textiles in India.
• In India (2006) there are about 582 sugar factories maximum in Maharashtra (134) .
• The maximum sugar factories (317) are in cooperative sector followed by private sector (203 factories).
Area and distribution(World):
• Area: India > Brazil > Cuba
• Production: Brazil > India > China ”
Productivity: Peru (115 t/ha) > Australia
Area & Production (India):
• Area: UP > Maharashtra > Tamil Nadu
• Production: UP > Maharashtra > Karnataka
• Productivity: Tamil Nadu (99.3 t/ha.)
• Family: Graminae (poaceae) perennial plant.
• Inflorescence of sugarcane known as Arrow which is an open branched panicle.
• C4, intermediate short day plant.
• Classification: there are three cultivated and two wild species.
1. S. officinarum: Noble/thick and juicy cane, low fiber content: 2n = 80.
2. S. Barbari: Indian cane, medium sucrose and high fiber content, 2n = 82-124.
3. S. sinense: Chinese cane, medium sucrose, high fiber content, 2n = 118
•Wild species:(Cotton One Liner)
1. S. spontaneum: Very low sugar and very high fiber content.
2. S. robustum: Very low sugar
• Material used for sowing is known as seed pieces or sets.
• Top 1/3 to 1 /2 portion of cane being comparatively immature having high glucose content good for germination.
• Three budded: 35,000-40,000 setts/ha (which can be obtained from 75-80 qt. of cane).
• Sets should be treated with 0.5% solution of Agallol.
•Time of planting:
1. Autumn planting: planting in October in N. India.
2. Adsali planting: planting in June -July in S. India and takes 1518 months for harvesting.
3. Eksali planting: Jan. -Feb. in S. India and takes about one year time for harvesting.Agronomy
• Flat planting: • Planted shallow 8-10 cm deep furrows at 75-90 cm distance. It followed in N. India.(Cotton One Liner)
• Furrow method: Particularly in heavy soils. Adopted 10-15 cm deep furrow in N. India.About 20 cm deep furrow in S. India.
• Trench method: Followed in tall growing cane areas such as coastal areas to protect from lodging.
• Heavy feeder crop but higher doses of nitrogen during ripening stage decrease sucrose content in maturing canes.
• Blanked application of nitrogen (120-150kg): phosphorus (80 kg): potash (60 kg).
• The best source of nitrogen in normal soil is Ammonium sulphate, in saline soil is urea and in acidic soil is used CAN.
•Irrigation stages: Phase Duration
1. Germination 0-60 DAP
2. Formative 60-130 DAP (maximum requirement of water in this stage)
3. Grand growth 130-250 DAP
4. Maturity 250-365 (DAP = Days after planting)
• Furrow method of irrigation is most common method of irrigation in sugar cane.
• Under high temperature, sucrose gets converted into glucose and quality of the produce becomes poor.(Cotton One Liner)
• Ratooning of sugarcane: it is economical to take only one ratoon crop, in ratoon crop 20% more nitrogen required as compare to planted crop.
• Artificial ripening of sugarcane: Polaris, Glyphosine @ 5 kg a.i. /ha.
•Blind hoeing: An important practice in sugarcane, hoeing after planting and before crop emergences for the purpose of weed control.
•Harvesting cane maturity measures as:
a. Brix ratio: Sugarcane consider mature if brix value or refractometer reading is 16-18. For brix reading juice should be taken from middle portion of stalk.
b. Fehling test: For maturation of cane Fehling test solution reading should be less than 0.5% glucose. It is the foliar diagnosis comparing the nutrient status of comparable leaves of high and low yield crop plants generally used in sugarcane in Hawaii.
•By-products of sugarcane:
1. Bagasses: Used for fuel and paper making. (RAS-2013)
2. Molasses: For alcohol production.
3. Press mud: (Contain lime), reclamation of acidic soils.
• Inflorescence of sugarcane is called as: Arrow
• Higher dose of nitrogen decrease the: Sucrose content
• Most critical stage for irrigation is: Formative stage
• Most popular planting method in the north India: Flat bed planting
• Brix reading should be for the proper maturity: 16-18% TSS (total soluble solids)
• Soils which are unsuitable for sugar cane are: Saline soils
• Noble cane is: Saccharum officinarum.
• Adsali sugarcane planted in:June -July (18 month crop).
• State, have highest productivity of sugarcane: TN
• Earthing in sugar cane should be done in: June -July.
• Tying should be done in the month of: August
• Spacing row to row: 90 cm
• Name of wild cane: Saccharum spontaneous
• Burning of canes is done for: Improve sucrose & juice quality.
• Indian cane indigenous to north and eastern India: Saccharum barberi.
Cotton, (Gossypium sp.)
•Also known as White gold(Cotton One Liner)
• King of appraisal fiber.
• Bt cotton is effective against boll worm pest complex of cotton.
•Area and distribution:
• Area: India > USA > China
• Production: China > USA > India
• Area: M11> AP>Gujarat
• Production: MH > A P> Haryana
• II -4 was first commercially hybrid variety of cotton.
• Desi cotton seed rate: 10-18 kg at 67.5 x 30 cm spacing
• American cotton seed rate :15-25 kg at 67.5 x 30cm spacing(Cotton One Liner)
• Hybrid cotton 2-3 kg at 100 x 60 cm spacing.
• Optimum population: 50,000-80,000 (average 66,000).
• For Bt cotton: 1-1.5 kg/ha (ay. 10,000 plant population)
• North India sowing time: 1st fortnight of May.
• Central India: Last week of June to first week of July.
• In Tamil Nadu: September – October(Cotton One Liner)
•Topping: Removal of terminal growing point once from each plant at a height of 1-1.2 m (80-90 DAS) to protect further terminal growth and to encourage sympodial branching and good boll development by diverting the energy flow.
•Ginning: Separation of fiber from the seed cotton is known as ginning.In general its ranges 30-35%.
•. Tirak/bad ball opening/pre-mature defective opening of balls due to early sowing, water stress on light sandy or in alkaline soils.
•. Red leaf: American cotton more susceptible, leaves turn red & rolled downward. In severely affected plants the whole lamina becomes red, leaving the veins green.
• Little leaf in cotton: due to Zn deficiency.
• Crinkle leaf of cotton: due to Mn toxicity.
• Fiber length and fiber fineness are: Genetic traits.
• Origin of cotton: India
• Lint per cent in cotton is: 33 %
• Fiber maturity measured by: Arealometer
• Fiber thickness by: Nepiness
• Spinning performance measured by: Number of counts
• One bale of cotton: 170 kg.
• Oil content in cotton seed varies from: 14.5 to 25.6%
• Toxic pigment/phenol compound present in cotton seed is: Gossypol.
• Cotton fiber is an elongation/outgrowth of an epidermal cell of seed coat.
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