Sunflower Cultivation Point Wise Notes For Competitive Exam

Sunflower Cultivation

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

  • 3rd most important oilseed crop of world
  • Sunflowers belong to the family Compositae
  • Best growing area – temperate region
  • Native of southern United State and Mexico
  • Introduced in India in 1969
  • Drought resistance
  • Wide adaptability
  • Photoperiod insensitivity
  • Short duration (75-100 days)
  • High yield potential
  • High PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid) like oleic and linoleic acid
  • Premium oil
  • High level of linoleic acid and absence of linolenic acid
  • Sunflower is protandrous-male and female elements mature at different times
  • Head is heliotropic (flower bent towards sunlight due to high level of auxin)
  • A cross pollinated crop
  • Inflorescence- capitulum
  • Major sunflower growing country – Argentina, Ukrian
  • Major sunflower growing state-KN, MH, AP

Oil content-

  • Globally-48-53%
  • In India– 35-43%

Climate-

  • Cool for germination
  • Warm for seedling
  • Best in 300-500 mm rainfall area

Soil –

  • Best pH-6.5-8.5
  • Well drained soil
  • Heavy black cotton soil is good

Seed rate-8-10 kg/ha

Spacing-

  • 60 x 30 cm
  • 45 x 30 cm (short duration)
  • ¬†55,555 plants/ha

Seed treatment- Thiram

Thinning – 15-18 DAS

 Maintain Р1 seedlings/hill

Weed control- Pendamenthalin

Irrigation – 8-10 days interval

Critical stage- Bud initiation, Flower opening, Seed filling

Supplemental pollination

  • Hand pollination by honey
  • Maintain – 5 bee hives/ha

Bird damage is serious problem

  • Parrot mainly
  • Bright reflector ribbons used

Harvest at head turn to lemon yellow colour

  • Yield-8-10 q/ha (rainfed), 20-15 q/ha (irrigated)
  • Incidence of virus disease is less when sowing is done after 15 Aug
  • Avoid low lying areas for its cultivation

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