Teaching and learning


Teaching and learning

Teaching: “Teaching is a process of providing the situation in which learning takes place”. Teaching is arranging the situation in which the things to be learnt are the Attention of the learner, their interest is developed, action promoted, desire aroused, action promoted and satisfaction ensured.

Teaching is a process of guided interaction between the teacher, learner and material of instruction. It is a process of creating situation that facilitate learning process.

The situation created should help in bringing desired change in the behavior of the learner.


1) The student should understand the purpose of learning.

2) The learner should want to learn.

3) The teacher should keep informal and friendly climate in learning situation.

4) Physical facilities should be favorable and appropriate.

5) The teacher should involve the learner so that they can participate and accept the responsibility.

6) The teacher should make use of learner’s experience.

7) The teacher should prepare well for the class keep his teaching aids ready.

8) The method of instruction should be appropriate.

9) The teacher should follow learner.

10) The teacher should have flexible plan for the course.

11) The teacher should able to learn at their own place.

12) The learner should aware about his own progress.

Steps in Extension Teaching:          

1) Getting the attention of the learner.

2) Stimulating the learner’s interest.

3) Increase the learner’s desire for information.

4) Convincing the learner about the act.

5) Getting action by the learner.

Learning Situation

An effective learning experience can only be had in well structured and skillfully executed learning situation. Extension teaching consists basically or arranging situations that promote desired learning. The essential role of extension worker is to create learning situations that stimulates and guide the learning activity. The effective extension worker is one who can create and manage learning situations in which learners have effective learning experience.

A learning situation is the condition or environment in which all the elements necessary for promoting learning are present.

An Effective Learning Situation Consists of Following Five Essential Elements:

  1. An effective Instructor or Leader.
  2. Learners who want and need to learn.
  3. Content or subject matter that is useful to learners.
  4. Appropriate teaching equipments and material.
  5. An appropriate physical environment

The Elements of Learning Situation

The above diagram shows that the learner is the central element in the learning situation. This is significant since the entire purpose is to cause them learn. Therefore, the learning on the part of the learner becomes the objective to be attended while other four elements become the means for achieving this end product. To have an effective learning situation, these five elements should satisfy the following conditions.

  1. I) Instructor – He should:
  2. Have clear objective.
  3. Know the subject matter and have it well organized.
  4. Be able to communicate with learner.
  5. Allow learners participation, ask for it.
  6. Use a definite leaching plan.
  7. Speak loudly and clearly so that all can hear and understand.
  8. Be skillful in use of teaching materials and equipments.
  1. II) Learner: Should:
  2. Have need for information.
  3. Be interested.
  4. Be capable of learning.
  5. Use the information again.

III) Subject Matter should be:

  1. Related to learners need.
  2. Applicable to real situation.
  3. Thought intellectual levels of the learners.
  4. Well organized and logically and clearly presented.
  5. Challenging and satisfying.
  6. Fulfilling overall objectives.

IV) Physical Facilities:

1.Free from outside destruction.

2.The room should be well lighted.

3.Adequate space for the group.

V) Teaching Equipments:

  1. Meet the needs effectively.
  2. Readily available.
  3. In working order.

The nature of each of these elements their relationship to each other, their role in education process must be thoroughly understood by the instructor and skill developed in handling them. Effective learning situation are created through the skilful use of appropriate teaching methods and equipments.

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