Tropical and subtropical fruits, in contrast with temperate fruits, can be broadly defined as those meeting all of the following criteria: crops that have their origin and commercial growing areas (when such exist) in the tropics or subtropics, plants that are evergreen and perennial, crops with a limited degree of frost resistance, and plants whose growth is practically nonexistent below 50°F (10°C) (with some exceptions according to species and individual age). A distinction between tropical and subtropical is possible if one considers that tropical species are not only sensitive to temperatures below 68°F (20°C) but indeed require a climate with average mean temperatures higher than 50°F (10°C) for the coldest month (Watson and Moncur, 1985, p. 3). Additionally most tropicals require humid environmental conditions. Examples of truly tropical crops are traditional fruits native to Southeast Asia, like mangosteen, durian, and rambutan. A good example of a typical subtropical fruit crop is the cherimoya, which when cultivated in cold subtropical areas may suffer some foliage loss during the winter with regrowth in spring. However, some fruit crops can be cultivated equally well in either the tropics or the subtropics, of which the banana and the avocado are the most outstanding examples.
Temperate fruits are largely made up of deciduous fruit trees. When you selecting temperate fruits it’s very important to consider their pollination and chill hour requirements. As the coastal region and south east Old have such as a mild climate, care should be taken to choose deciduous fruit trees appropriate for the mild winters. The selected varieties we sell have the lowest chill factor of their groups. The most common and good temperate fruits are apples, peaches, pears, cherries, and plums. In addition, most fruits that grow on the bushes are raised mainly in the temperate Zone.
Tropical fruits cannot stand even a light frost and are also raised mainly in the tropics. Bananas and pineapples are the best and good known tropical fruits. They are grown throughout the tropics and much of each crop is exported. Other tropical fruits also include mangoes and papayas.
Subtropical fruits need warm or mild temperatures throughout the year, but they can survive in a light frost. The most common subtropical fruits are citrus fruits: oranges, grapefruits, lemons, and limes. Oranges, the leading citrus fruit, are grown from southern Japan. In the United States, Florida is expert in producing the most oranges. Other subtropical fruits include dates, figs, olives, pomegranates, and certain types of avocados.
Inedible fruits are very fleshy five-valved red capsules. The fruits and leaves are poisonous, containing andromedotoxin which helps lowers blood pressure and causes breathing problems, dizziness, cramps, vomiting and diarrhea. Bog Laurel occurs with and strongly resembles Labrador Tea at the Ozette Prairies.
An accessory fruit is referred to one that has more than ovary wall as part of fruit body. The other part of the flower swells along with expanding ovary wall. Very frequently the receptacle also participates. Ovaries that are inferior or that are in perigynous flower some time have accessory tissues surrounding the true fruit. The true fruit is red and accessory is white. An actual fruit is dry achene; and the accessory is red and juicy at the time of maturity.
In other words accessory fruits are composed of material not just form the ovary but also participate to form other parts of the flower such as the receptacle. To understand even better an accessory fruit is a fruit where the fleshy part is derived not form the ovary but form some adjacent tissue.
Few very good examples of accessory fruits are strawberry, watermelon, apple etc. Most accessory fruits are simple fruits that are developed from inferior ovaries.
Consumption and Other Uses
The main method of consumption of most tropical and subtropical fruits is as fresh fruit. The breadfruit is the most important exception, as it is only eaten cooked. Nuts can be eaten directly or processed (roasted, candied, and so forth). Salads, both savory and sweet types, are prepared with many fruits. Indeed consumption is virtually as unlimited as the chef’s imagination. Jams, jellies, juices (made with fresh fruits, concentrates, or frozen pulp), sauces, ice cream and sherbets, and other desserts and diverse confectionaries are typical of the uses to which tropical and subtropical fruits are put, both industrially and domestically. Infusions as social beverages, not as medicinal remedies, are made from many different fruits.
A specific product is baby food, especially made with “healthy” fruits like the banana or the papaya, based on different kinds of puree (industrially known as aseptic, chilled aseptic, or simply chilled purees). Flour is also made from the durian and the banana. Pickles and chutneys are made from many fruits, the most famous of which is mango chutney, a staple in Indian cuisine and highly esteemed by gourmets. Dips are also popular in many countries, of which perhaps the best known is avocado-based guacamole. Guava paste or spread is consumed, usually with bread and cheese, in many countries, particularly Cuba, Brazil, and the Canary Islands.
Besides their edible and pleasant fruits, the actual plants of several tropical and subtropical fruit crops are also put to good use. Descriptions of the many properties of parts other than fruits—wood, leaves, flowers, roots, seeds—are frequently dealt with in older texts (including, among others not yet mentioned, Popenoe, 1974 ; Chandler, 1958; Singh, 1960; Purseglove, 1968; Ochse et al., 1972; Coronel, 1983), but a clear dearth of in-depth studies on many of these aspects is apparent. The potential of leaves or flower extracts as biological products for use against pests and diseases is in much the same situation and is an issue relevant to organic produce, of increasing importance to concerned consumers. Some outstanding examples of alternative uses follow.
Religious uses. Some orchards of date palms in the Mediterranean are maintained solely to supply young leaves used on Palm Sunday during the Christian Easter week.
Oils, perfumes, and the like. An essential oil is extracted from some citrus species, particularly from certain oranges and their flowers. Avocado oil, occasionally used for cooking, is a commercial product in some countries. Soaps, bath gels, and shampoos include extracts from different tropical and subtropical fruits. Loquat seed oil is used in soaps and paints.
Animal feed. Banana leaves, pseudostems, and fruits are fed to goats in several countries, particularly in the Canary Islands (Galán Saúco, 2001). Dried dates and their pits, breadfruit leaves, and mango seed kernels are used as feed in several countries. In India, Gandhi recommended using peanuts and mango seed kernels rather than expensive cereals and imported fodders (Galán Saúco, 1999, p. 44).
Textiles and paper. Fibers from pineapple and banana leaves are used in several places for papermaking and cloth, notably in the Philippines to make the typical loose-fitting shirts called guayaberas.
Handicrafts. Mature date palm leaves and avocado wood are excellent for decorative carvings.
Construction and furniture. The wood of breadfruit, citrus in general, guava, longan, mango, and mangosteen are regularly used for interior paneling or for furniture. The wood of the caki is highly prized. Banana and date palm leaves are a traditional roofing material in many regions.
Firewood. Orange wood is long lasting, while avocado wood is highly combustible. Mango wood is held in high esteem in Bangladesh, to the extent that the locals consider the best trees those that faithfully provide both wood and fruit.
Other uses. For many years chewing gum (chicle) was made from sapodilla latex. Although the industry subsequently began to use artificial substances, the trend in favor of organic products may signify a return to traditional chicle. Garden brooms are made out of the stripped fruit clusters of the date palm. Fishermen in the Pacific have used the coconut as a fishing aid, chewing the coconut meat and spitting the resulting mass onto the water to produce a glossy calm spot, smooth enough to allow a brief glimpse of the fish below the surface (Hawaii).
International Forum on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits
Many organizations and horticultural societies at national and international levels are dedicated to particular tropical or subtropical fruits (or a closely related group). Their members include amateurs, growers, researchers and academics, handlers, traders, and consumers. By reason of both magnitude and global concern, some of these merit special mention.
The International Society of Horticultural Science (ISHS), headquartered in Louvain, Belgium, has established a Commission of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture with working groups in specific tropical and subtropical fruits. The ISHS meets regularly in different countries to discuss aspects of production, research, and trade of these fruits, and it holds an international congress every four years, which congregates a minimum of four thousand people.
The Interamerican Society of Tropical Horticulture was formerly known as the Tropical Region of the American Society of Horticultural Science. It holds annual meetings in different American countries with tropical crops to discuss the same issues mentioned above but including vegetables and ornamental plants.
The Intergovernmental Group on Bananas and on Tropical Fruits, under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), meets every two years to discuss issues related to marketing and trade.