Types of Fisheries:
(Fishery)There are two main types of fisheries: Inland fisheries and marine fisheries.
1. Inland or Fresh Water Fisheries: (Fishery)
Inland fishing is concerned with the fisheries of bodies of water other than seawater. India’s huge and diverse inland fishing resources have the potential to be among the world’s wealthiest. They refer to two different sorts of waters: fresh and brackish. The former consists of the country’s major river systems, as well as a vast network of irrigation canals, reservoirs, lakes, tanks, and ponds.
The brackish water is found in estuaries, lagoons, and mangrove swamps. The fish seed must be seeded, maintained, nursed, raised, and eventually collected when grown to table size in pisciculture (culture fisheries), which mainly refers to tiny water bodies.
Man has just to harvest without having to sow in the case of catch fisheries, which belong to rivers, estuaries, huge reservoirs, and large lakes. Some significant edible fresh waterfishes of India are listed below-
Important Edible Fresh Water Fishes of India:
I. Rohu (Labeo rohita)
II. Calbasu (L. calbasu)
III. Catla (Catla catla)
IV. Singhara (Mystus seenghala)
V. Mangur (Clarias batrachus)
VI. Singhi (Heteropneustes fossilis)
VII. Malli (Wallago attu)
VIII. Mirgala (Cirrhinus mrigala)
Types of Breeding:(Fishery)
There are two types of breeding: natural breeding and induced breeding.
(i) Natural Breeding (Bundh breeding):(Fishery)
Natural bundhs are unique ponds where natural water resource conditions are controlled for the development of culturable fish. These bundhs are built in low-lying locations in order to collect a huge amount of rainwater. These bundhs have an outlet for letting excess rainwater out.
(ii) Induced Breeding:(Fishery)
The ova from females and sperms from men are extracted by an artificial mechanical procedure, and the eggs are fertilised by the sperms in the artificial technique of fertilisation. Induced breeding is done in a variety of ways. The process of hormone-induced breeding is briefly detailed here. The pituitary gland secretes gonadotropin hormones (FSH and LH), which impact gonad development and spawning in fish. Khan (1938) used mammalian pituitary hormone to effectively induce Cirrhinus mrigala to spawn in India.
(iii) Composite Fish Farming:
The overall production of fish is raised several times when a few selected species of fish are stocked together in right proportion in a pond. Composite farming is the name given to this type of mixed farming. Compatible species do not hurt each other, all accessible regions are completely utilised, there is no rivalry among various species, and fish may have a helpful influence on each other. Catla catla, Labeo-rohita, and Cirrhina mrigala are surface, column, and bottom feeders used in composite farming, respectively.
2. Marine Fisheries:
Marine fishery is the study of fisheries in seawater or the ocean.
Important Edible Marine Fish of India:
I. Bombay duck (Harpodon sp)
II. Eel (Anguilla sp)
III. Hilsa (Hilsa)
IV. Pomfret (Stromateus)
V. Flying Fish (Exocoetus)
VI. Ribbon Fish (Trichiurus)
VII. Salmon (Aluitheronema)
VIII. Mackerel (Rastrelliger)
IX. Sardine (Sardinella)
X. Tuna (Thunnus)
XI. Seer Fish (Scomberomorus)
Hilsa breeds in the river after migrating from the sea. Hilsa’s migration was investigated by Dr. Hora.