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Types of Fisheries

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Types of Fisheries:

Types of Fisheries:

There are two main types of fisheries: Inland fisheries and marine fisheries.

1. Inland or Fresh Water Fisheries: (Types of Fisheries)

Inland fishery deals with the fishery aspects of waters other than marine water. Potentially, the vast and varied inland fishery resources of India are one of the richest in the world. They pertain to two types of waters, namely, the fresh and the brackish. The former includes the country’s great river systems, an extensive network of irrigation canals, reservoirs, lakes, tanks, ponds, etc.
The estuaries, lagoons and mangrove swamps constitute the brackish type of water. In pisciculture (culture fisheries), which generally pertains to small water bodies, the fish seed has to be sown, tended, nursed, reared and finally harvested when grown to table size. In the case of capture fisheries, which pertain to the rivers, estuaries, large reservoirs, as well as big lakes, man has only to reap without having to sow some important edible fresh waterfishes of India are write down below-

Important Edible Fresh Water Fishes of India: (Types of Fisheries)

I. Rohu (Labeo rohita)
II. Calbasu (L. calbasu)
III. Catla (Catla catla)
IV. Singhara (Mystus seenghala)
V. Mangur (Clarias batrachus)
VI. Singhi (Heteropneustes fossilis)
VII. Malli (Wallago attu)
VIII. Mirgala (Cirrhinus mrigala)

Types of Breeding:(Types of Fisheries)

According to the mode of breeding there are two categories, natural breeding and induced breeding.

(i) Natural Breeding (Bundh breeding):(Types of Fisheries)

The natural bundhs are special types of ponds where natural water resource conditions are managed for the breeding of culturable fish. These bundhs are constructed in large low-lying areas to accumulate large quantity of rain water. These bundhs are having an outlet for the exit of excess rain water.

(ii) Induced Breeding:(Types of Fisheries)

In artificial method of fertilization ova from the females and the sperms from the males are taken out by artificial mechanical process and the eggs are got fertilized by the sperms. Different methods are used for induced breeding. Here induced breeding by hormones method is briefly described. The gonadotropin hormone (FSH and LH) secreted by pituitary gland influences the maturation of gonads and spawning in fishes. In India, Khan (1938) successfully induced Cirrhinus mrigala to spawn by injecting mammalian pituitary hormone.

(iii) Composite Fish Farming:(Types of Fisheries)

It is found that if few selected species of fish are stocked together in proper proportion in a pond, total production of fish is increased many times. This mixed farming is called composite farming. It has some advantage-compatible species do not harm each other, all available areas are fully utilised, no competition among different species is found and fish may have beneficial effect on each other. Catla catla, Labeo-rohita and Cirrhina mrigala are surface feeder, column feeder and bottom feeder respectively and are used for composite farming.

2. Marine Fisheries:(Types of Fisheries)

Marine fishery deals with the fishery aspects of the sea water or ocean.

Important Edible Marine Fish of India:(Types of Fisheries)

I. Bombay duck (Harpodon sp)
II. Eel (Anguilla sp)
III. Hilsa (Hilsa)
IV. Pomfret (Stromateus)
V. Flying Fish (Exocoetus)
VI. Ribbon Fish (Trichiurus)
VII. Salmon (Aluitheronema)
VIII. Mackerel (Rastrelliger)
IX. Sardine (Sardinella)
X. Tuna (Thunnus)
XI. Seer Fish (Scomberomorus)

Hilsa migrates from the sea to the river for breeding. Dr. Hora studied the migration of Hilsa.

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