Value Addition ―
Processing converts perishable fruits and vegetables into stable products … addition and to improve the quality of value added food products for domestic viz. physical methods, chemical methods, fermentation, and other means are used.
Concept of Value Addition
- Value is added by changing their form, colour and other such methods to increase the shelf life of perishables.(Value Addition)
- There are various methods of preservation of food including thermal processing, fermentation, pickling, dehydration, freezing etc.
- Value addition to food products has assumed vital importance in our country due to diversity in socio-economic conditions, industrial growth, urbanization and globalization.
- Value is added by changing their form, colour and other such methods to increase the shelf life of perishables.
- Tomatoes are one of the most widely used and versatile vegetable crops, ranking second in importance to potatoes in many countries.
- Tomatoes are important both for its large consumption and richness in health related food components.(Value Addition)
- Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) is an herbaceous plant of Solanaceae family, which is one of the most popular protective foods, because of its lycopene content, outstanding nutritive value, antioxidant properties and a powerhouse of medicinal properties.
- It is a rich source of minerals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, sodium, potassium and vitamins especially A and C.
- Tomatoes are consumed mainly as a raw staple food, as an ingredient in different types of food products and in the form of processed products such as powder, tomato juice, paste, puree, sauce, etc.
- This horticultural crop is an excellent source of health promoting compounds, being a balanced mixture of minerals and antioxidant vitamins including vitamin C and E, as well as rich in lycopene, beta carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, lutein and flavonoids such as quercetin.
- The main antioxidants in the tomatoes are the carotenoids specially lycopene which have the highest lycopene levels among fruits and vegetables, ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds.
- In addition to lycopene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin a-cryptoxanthin, b- cryptoxanthin, carotene, neurosporene, phytoene and 5, 6- epoxides are other carotenoids commonly cited in tomatoes and tomato derived products.
- Among the different carotenoids, lycopene, is the most abundant in human serum, with important antioxidant activity involved in prevention of several types of cancer and degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases.
- The production of tomato, an important horticultural crop of India has increased enormously during past few decades, which emphasize more on processing and preservation of tomatoes, thereby ensuring better availability and utilization during off season.
- India is the fourth largest producer of tomatoes, accounting for 6.6 percent of the world production and second largest in acreage.
- However, due to lack of proper processing, storage and transportation facilities, enormous quantities of tomatoes are lost during the peak harvesting season in India.
- Being a perishable crop, tomatoes cannot be stored for a longer time, hence proper processing and storage in some preserved form during seasons of glut will ensure its availability and utilization during deficiency period.(Value Addition)
- Hence, processing of tomatoes in different forms as preferred by the consumers, with long shelf life involves low cost of production.
Processing of fresh tomatoes can be done to prepare the following value added products like.
• Tomato pulp
• Tomato puree
• Tomato paste
• Tomato flakes
• Canned tomatoes
• Tomato ketchup
• Tomato soup and sauce
• Tomato powder
• Dehydrated tomato
Therefore, replacement of fresh tomatoes for example, with tomato powder can facilitate the processing sector with daily cuisines and preparation during off season. Tomato powder can be used in processed products, such as soup mixes and confectionary items.(Value Addition)
- Carrot (Daucus Carota L.) is another popular root vegetable, which is cultivated and consumed throughout the world.
- It is well known for its nutrient contents viz., carotene and carotenoids, besides appreciable amount of vitamins and minerals such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol etc. Among roots and other vegetables, carrot is the best source of carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A, an essential nutrient for maintaining health.
- Carrot posses nutraceutical properties such as antimutagenic, chemo preventive, photo protective and immune enhancing aspects.
- The presence of high concentration of antioxidant carotenoids, especially beta-carotene, may account for the biological and medicinal properties of carrots.
- Carrot is also rich in fiber content and has been reported to be effective for its multifaceted applications, which have resulted in development of various processing operation for making different products.
- Carrots are widely used as an ingredient for making curry, sweet meats and soups.
- Carrots have been reported to be effective in the elimination of uric acid.
- Carrots not only prevent vitamin A deficiency, but also cancer and other diet related human diseases.(Value Addition)
- It has greater cytotoxic effect against cancer cells and reduces the enzymes that promote conversion of procarcinogens to carcinogens.
- It may also enhance the immune system protect against stroke, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, cataract, arthritis, heart disease and urinary tract infections.
- Processing of carrots would ensure its availability round year and reduction in cost of transportation and storage.
- During winter season, when carrots are available in plenty, different processed products may be prepared and stored in air tight containers, which may be incorporated in various recipes.
Different processed products of carrots are:
• Carrot juice
• Carrot powder
• Carrot flakes
• Canned carrot
• Carrot candy
• Carrot Halwa
• Carrot grits
• Carrot soup
• Carrot Dalia
• Fabricated baby foods
Carrot powder prepared by dehydrating carrots is often incorporated in traditional food products to enhance the nutritional value, and thereby produce value added products such as paratha, porridge and laddu.
These processed carrot products are not only nutritionally adequate, but also qualitatively sound for an extended period, as indicated by the research study.
- Spices have a special significance in various ways in human life, because of their specific flavor, aroma, taste and keeping quality.
- Spices are generally used in a pulverized form as condiments for seasoning or garnishing foods and beverages.(Value Addition)
- These are considered to act as preservative, besides improving texture and flavor of foods.
Ginger (Zingiber Officinale)
- Ginger is one of the five most important spices of India, standing next to chilli, garlic and turmeric.
- Ginger is an underground stem of the zingiberis herbaceous plant. It is cultivated in several parts of the world, including India.
- Though ginger is grown throughout India, Kerala is the highest ginger producing state.
- In the year 2002, the total ginger production in India was 281.16 million tones, with Kerala and Meghalaya being the highest producing states.
- Among various spices grown in Uttarakhand, ginger occupies an important place with the production of 27,340 tonnes from an area of 2,250 hectare in year 2006-07.
- Ginger rhizomes are available for harvesting every 7-9 months after planting and stages of maturity of the rhizome have a significant influence in its quality and processing.
- Ginger is commonly used as a food additive, and as spice, it is used in food preparation to impart its characteristic flavor.
- It has been attributed with antioxidant properties, proteolytic activity and tenderizing effect. It has been attributed with antioxidant properties which widens its use in preservation of meat and meat products.
- Ginger has been used to treat numerous types of nausea and vomiting.
- Ginger‘s therapeutic properties effectively stimulate circulation of the blood, remove toxins form the body, clean the bowels and kidneys and nourish skin.
- Other uses for ginger root include the treatment of asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory problems.
- Besides therapeutic properties, ginger has been attributed with antioxidant properties, proteolytic activity and tenderizing effect.
- Ginger widens its use in preservation of meat and meat products, besides being used in fresh form.
- Ginger is used in various food preparations to impart its characteristic flavor and is probably the only spice being used in production of beverages like ginger beer, ginger ale and ginger wine(Value Addition)
- Although ginger production is very high, but due to lack of proper storage and transportation facilities, about 20 percent of fresh ginger crop gets damaged due to respiration and microbial spoilage.
- Hence, it becomes necessary to process the surplus ginger in different preserved forms, which is available throughout the year.
The different processed products from ginger include
• Ice cream
• Ginger ale
The research study involved development of value added products such as ginger powder, ginger ale, ginger tea.
- Green leafy vegetables are gaining importance, because of being good sources of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber.
- Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) is a popular green leafy vegetable available in plenty, at lower cost during winter season.(Value Addition)
- Blanching treatment is used to preserve the color and nutritional value of GLVs.
- Fenugreek leaf powder obtained by dehydrating fenugreek leaves has been used to prepare paratha and saag in study conducted.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important and extensively grown horticultural crop in India
Potato is a versatile food, which can be eaten as a staple food, as a complementary vegetable, as a snack item or processed into several forms, and in any of these roles, it enhances the nutritional quality of the diets of people.
Among the root crops, potatoes top the list and have the distraction of occupying largest area under any single vegetable in the world.
Potatoes are versatile as they can be consumed in various forms as boiled, fried, baked, roasted, steamed and even in several pressed forms such as French fries, chips, papad, flakes, dice, cubes, granules, flour, canned potatoes etc.
Potatoes contribute significantly to the nutritive value of a meal, as it is not only a rich source of energy, but contain good quality edible grade protein, dietary fiber, several minerals and trace elements, essential vitamins and little or negligible fat.
However, besides this added advantage, the principal disadvantage associated with the crop is that, it is seasonal and the crop produced has a shorter storage life.(Value Addition)
Hence, under such circumstances, the post harvest processing of the bulky, perishable potatoes into dehydrated potato products helps to extend the storage life and a serve as a means to increase the supply in off-seasons in different forms, in a price effective manner.
different processed products of potatoes such as
• potato flour
• potato grits
• potato flakes
• potato granules
• potato cubes
The research studies on potatoes involved preparation of different value added food products by incorporating potato flour such as idli, biscuit, sev, extruded snacks, etc. and thereby, increasing the nutritional value of the products, also potato cubes are used in preparation of different vegetables
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) belongs to the morning glory family Convulacae.
Sweet potato, a commonly grown root vegetable of winter season is valued for its high nutritive value, flavors and digestibility. Sweet potato is widely used is India, for food consumption after boiling, baking or frying. However, in other countries, flour of the sweet potato is often used in biscuits, cakes and pudding.(Value Addition)
The advantage of sweet potato over other vegetables is that it has got the shorter growth period, and adverse weather conditions rarely cause a complete crop loss. Sweet potatoes often referred to as ―poor people‘s food or ―poor men‘s crop has difficulties in marketing and processing. Processing of sweet potato tuber increases their availability and reduces post harvest wastage.
The processed products of sweet potato include:
• Sweet potato flour
• Sweet potato granules
• Canned sweet potatoes
Sweet potato flour can be incorporated in wheat flour for bread and biscuit baking, hot cakes, gruel, noodles, candy, puddings and other preparations. It can be mixed with wheat flour for making chapatti and bread.
This flour functions as a stabilizing agent in ice-creams.
Sweet potatoes are an important source of dietary protein, substantial amount of vitamins (Beta carotene, B complex and vitamin C) minerals, trace elements and high energy value.
Research study involved different value added product formulated from sweet potato like kheer, gulab jamun, chapatti and puri.(Value Addition)
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