Various systems of livestock production-extensive – semi intensive- intensive-mixed.

Systems of Livestock Production
Extensive : Semi intensive- specialized – Intensive – Tethering .
i. Oldest method
ii. Requires extensive land
iii. Grazing – dry – housed – night
iv. Availability of fodder varies with season so variation in intake.
v. Cost of feeding – Nil, Negligible
vi. Currently – Not followed – except in
Reason :

a) Reduction in grazing land
b) Tremendous pressure on cultivable land
High yielding animal – not suitable

i) Temperature

ii. Loss of energy

iii. Average fodder

Semi intensive

1. few months grazing
2. Daily / everyday – grazing
During cropping season – confined/other times let loose.
Exercise for the animal : Milch animal : Fat % : Absences of leg problem – over grown Hoof.
Feed cost comparison – less Vs. intensive system, Identification – heat, ailing animals
Dis Adv. : High yielding animal not suitable :
Intensive : Total confinement to shed throughout the year and fed. Restricted movement
energy conservation, management easy. Number of animals can be maintained under direct supervision, space requirement less when compared with. Ext or SI system.
Demerits : over grown hoof ; lack of exercise. Leg problem : improperly maintained disease outbreak – severe – Economical loss – high.
Mixed Farming : Along with crop Husbandry one or more component of livestock or poultry maintained. mixed farming is the economical rearing of different types Livestock&Poultry in the farm along with

(a) making use of farm Produce.
b)Utilization of unconventional feed and fodder
c)better utilization of farm by products.
Recycling : Farm Yard Manure – Dung – Gas – Slurry – Soil fertility
Bring constant income to the family throughout the year
Indirectly enhances standard of living.
Drawbacks :
i. No planning
ii. No Scientific approach.
iii. No correlation between land availability and number of head of animal maintained.
iv. Improper planning –over utilization/ under utilized.

Integrated farming system – (IFS) 

In the integrated farming system the defects of mixed farming is overcome by proper planning, monitoring and execution of work according to size of the farm, farm resources, Agro climatic etc. In this type, the type of livestock species or poultry enterprises are selected based on the availability of feed, fodder, water resources of the farm.
Quantity – Availability : No. of animals maintained
Specialized farm
i.Sole income is derived from one species – Cattle, Buffalo, goat, pig or poultry
ii. Feed mixture procured
iii. Specialized farm – Fodder procured, Accomplish partly.
iv. Location- various with production of fodder, availability of land ; cost , etc.
If located close to town – Advantageous i. Reduce transport cost ii. Marketing easy since
avenues more.
Village : Cost of land cheap : investment on feed and fodder less

Specialized Farm
1.White cattle
2. Black cattle
3. Sheep
Pure Breed
i. Breeding policy
ii.Income from sale of breeding bulls.
(eg.) Work Bullock (Kangayam)

Grading – upgrading local stock
i. Production of market milk
ii.Poor producers – disposed
iii. New stock purchased
(Eg.) Murrah and local buffalo

Non descript
i. No specified breeding policy
ii.No specific breed maintained
i. Sole Income from Livestock or poultry
ii. Farm which neither produces feed or fodder
iii. Fodder alone raised – depending on – availability of land

iv. Location of farm varies :

Close to urban –                                      Feed & fodder purchase-Transport cost                                                                                  increased
Rural areas
1. Production of feed and fodder                         1. Transport cost
2. Production cost feed and fodder                      2. Cost of Feed and Fodder
3. Quality feed and fodder assured                      3. Quality not assured

4. Green fodder available                                     4. Cost fluctuating
through out the season                                        5. Availability of green fodder during

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