Watershed Management for Competitive exam

Watershed Management

Watershed:

A watershed is essentially the region of land through which water flows and drains into a common body of water, such as a stream, river, lake, or ocean. The watershed border will roughly follow the highest ridgeline surrounding the stream channels, eventually meeting at the bottom or lowest point of the land, the mouth of the canal, when water flows out of the watershed.

Rainfall and storm water runoff provide the majority of the water. All changes to the land—mining, agriculture, highways, urban growth, and human activities within a watershed—have an impact on the quality and amount of storm water. Normally, naturally raised places divide watersheds from one another.

Watershed Management

The environment has traditionally been managed in terms of distinct concerns such as air, land, and water. The majority of these efforts have resulted in lower pollutant emissions to the air and water, improved landfills, waste site and contaminated groundwater remediation, protection of rare and endangered species, development of best management practises to control water and contaminant runoff, and much more.

Watershed management is the study of a watershed’s relevant characteristics with the goal of distributing its resources sustainably, as well as the process of developing and implementing plans, programmes, and projects to maintain and improve watershed functions that affect plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. Water supply, water quality, drainage, storm water runoff, water rights, and general planning and exploitation of watersheds are all features that authorities strive to regulate. Watershed management involves landowners, land use agencies, storm water management professionals, environmental specialists, water usage surveyors, and communities.

Objective Of watershed Management

The following are the many goals of watershed management programmes:

  • Watershed land must be protected, conserved, and improved for more efficient and long-term productivity.
  • The watershed’s water resource must be protected and improved.
  • To limit the impact of sediment output on the watershed and to prevent soil erosion.
  • To repair the lands that are decaying.
  • To reduce the severity of floods in downstream areas.
  • Rainwater infiltration should be increased.
  • To enhance and expand wood, feed, and wildlife resource output.
  • Wherever possible, to improve groundwater recharge.
  • Reduce the frequency of floods and the damage they cause by using flood management methods.
  • Encourage vegetation and waste disposal facilities in order to give water of a consistent quality.

Need of Watershed Management

Surface water features and storm water runoff within a watershed eventually drain to other bodies of water, making watersheds vital. When creating and executing water quality protection and restoration initiatives, it is critical to consider these downstream effects. Everything that happens upstream eventually ends up downstream. We must keep in mind that we all live downstream and that our daily actions might have an impact on downstream rivers.

In terms of purpose, watershed management techniques

  • Infiltration to be increased
  • To improve the capacity of water storage
  • Soil erosion prevention
  • Methodology and results

In a nutshell, the following are some of the numerous control measures:

  • Vegetative measures (Agronomical measures)
  • Strip cropping
  • Pasture cropping
  • Grass land farming
  • Wood lands
  • Engineering measures (Structural practices)
  • Contour bonding
  • contour trenching
  • Terracing
  • Construction of earthen embankment
  • Construction of check dams
  • Construction of farm ponds
  • Construction of diversion
  • Gully controlling structure
  • Rock dam
  • Establishment of permanent grass and vegetation
  • Providing vegetative and stone barriers
  • Construction of silt tanks den tension

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