Women Development Programme for Competitive exam

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Women Development Programme

1. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (D W C R A)        
2. Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) 
3. Mahila Samridhi Yojana (M S Y)
4. Mahila Arthik vikas Mahamankal (M A V I M) (Women Development Programme)

Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (D W C R A)     

The Development of Women and children in rural areas (DWCRA) programme was launched as a subcomponent of IRDP and a centrally sponsored scheme of the Department of Rural Development with UNICEF cooperation to strengthen the women’s component of poverty alleviation programmes.  It is directed at raising the income levels of women of poor households so as to enable their organized participation in social development towards economic self reliance. (Women Development Programme)

The DWCRA’s primary thrust is on the formation of groups of 15 to 20 women form poor household at the village level for delivery of services like credit and skill training, cash and infrastructural support for self employment.  Through the strategy of group formation, the programme aims to improve women’s access to basic services of health, education, child care, nutrition and sanitation.  It is merged with S.G.S.Y. SWARNAJAYANTI GRAMA SWAROJAGAR YOJANA since 01.04.1999.

1. The special scheme of Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) aims at strengthening the gender component of IRDP. (Women Development Programme)

2. It was started in the year 1982-83, on a pilot basis, in 50 districts and has now been extended to all the districts of the country. (Women Development Programme)

3. DWCRA is directed at improving the living conditions of women and, thereby, of children through the provision of opportunities for self-employment and access to basic social service. (Women Development Programme)

Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS)

Launched on 2nd October 1975 in 33 Community Development Blocks, ICDS today represents one of the world’s largest programmes for early childhood development.  ICDS is the foremost symbol of India’s commitment to her children.  India’s response to the challenge of providing pre-school education on one hand and breaking the vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity, reduced learning capacity and mortality, ion the other. (Women Development Programme)

It is an inter sectoral programme which seeks to directly reach out to children, below six years, especially from vulnerable and remote areas and give them a head-start by providing an integrated programme of early childhood education, health and nutrition. No programme on Early Childhood Care and Education can succeed unless mothers are also brought within it ambit as it is in the lap of the mother that human beings learn the first lessons in life. (Women Development Programme)

Objectives:

  1. Lay the foundation for proper psychological department of the child
  2. Improve nutritional and health status of children 0-6 years
  3. Reduce incidence of mortality, malnutrition and school drop-outs
  4. Enhance the capability of the mother and family to look after the health, nutritional and development needs of the child
  5. Achieve effective coordination of policy and implementation among various departments to promote child development. (Women Development Programme)

Services:

The Scheme provides an integrated approach for converging basic services through community-based workers and helpers.  The services are provided at a centre called the ‘Anganwadi’.  The Anganwadi, literally a courtyard play centre, is a childcare, located within the village itself.  A package of following six services is provided under the ICDS Scheme: (Women Development Programme)

  • Supplementary nutrition
  • Non-formal pre-school education
  • Immunization
  • Health Check-up
  • Referral services
  • Nutrition and Health Education

The three services namely immunization, health check-up and referral are delivered through public health infrastructure viz.  Health Sub Centers, Primary an Community health Centers under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. (Women Development Programme)

Mahila Samridhi Yojana (M S Y)

The Mahila Samridhi Yojana (MSY) was launched on 2nd October, 1993 with the objective of empowering the rural women through building thrift habit, self-reliance and confidence.  During the first two years of its operation the performance of scheme, as measured by achievement against the all India target and the amount of the money deposited in MSY accounts was not encouraging, and the cost of the scheme was also on the higher side, Programme.  Evaluation Organisation was asked to evaluate the performance, imple-mentation and impact of the scheme, to identify the gaps, if any, and suggest measures that would improve the performance of the scheme.  The report was submitted in April, 1996. (Women Development Programme)

It was observed in the PEO study that the factors that had adversely affected the performance of MSY related primarily to the method of implementation and complexity/ambiguity in the rules for operating MSY accounts.  The operational cost of MSY was on the higher side and far outweighed the benefits received by the beneficiaries.  The high cost of operation might not have affected performance, but it certainly raised the question of sustainability of the scheme.  There was wide variation in performance across various states and districts due to interaction of a large number of factors such as the levels of socio-economic development, the effectiveness of the publicity media and implementing agencies.  The operational rules of MSY were complex and the Branch Post Masters, the key persons for operation of the schemes, lacked their understanding due to poor quality of training and educational background.  There was poor monitoring and supervision of the scheme also.  The scheme, in general, had not been successful in developing thrift habit among the rural women. (Women Development Programme)

It was observed that the fundamental problem in the implementation of the scheme was adoption of the target oriented and top-down approach without actual participation of the rural women in the programme.  Therefore, it was suggested that the task of popularising the scheme be entrusted to the grass-toot level women.  Self Help Groups, Mahila Mandals, DWCRA, NGOs etc.  There was an urgent need for drastic simplification of the operational rules for MSY accounts and reducing the operational costs to ensure sustainability of the scheme.  There was also need to strengthen the monitoring mechanism for the scheme.  It is learnt that Department of Women & child Development have taken follow-up actions on the findings of the evaluation study of PEO. (Women Development Programme)

With the objective of providing economic security to the rural women and to encourage, the saving habit among them, the Mahila samridhi Yojana was started on 2 October 1993.  Under this plan, the rural women of 18 years of above age can open their saving account in the rural post office of their own area with a minimum Rs. 4 or its multiplier.  On the amount not withdrawn for 1 year, 25% of the deposited amount is given to the depositor by the government in the form of encouragement amount.  Such accounts opened under the scheme account opened under the scheme account opened under the scheme are provided 25% bonus with a maximum of Rs. 300 every year.  Up to 31 March 1997 2.45crore accounts were opened under this scheme with a total collection of Rs 265.09crore.  The Department of Women and Child Development, the nodal agency for MSY, decided in April 1997 that now new MSY accounts should be opened form 1 April 1997 onwards but the existing account could be maintained. (Women Development Programme)

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