250 Floriculture One Liner For Competitive Exam

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1. Honeydew on the leaves and ants crawling around a plant indicate: Aphids

2. Fertilization in a flower takes place when: A sperm and egg unite

3. Vase life is the length of time that: Cut flowers usually remain acceptable

4. If a hue is diluted with gray, the resulting color is called: Tone

5. The order of the elements in a 5-10-5 fertilizer analysis is: NPK

6. If a flower arrangement appears to be ready to fall over, it lacks: Balance

7. A person is exposed to the highest concentration of a pesticide during: Mixing

8. It is important not to keep fruit baskets in the same cooler with fresh flowers because: Ethylene gas from the fruit will cause the flowers to age quickly

9. The stomata of a plant leaf: Regulate water vapor loss from the plant

10. A method of applying pesticides to plants that can be effectively used in greenhouse but not outdoors is: Fumigation

11. A flowering pot marketed throughout the year is: Chrysanthemum

12. To check if a plant needs water, touch the soil with your finger: if the plant needs water the soil will feel: Dry and warm

13. The treatment given Easter lilies to speed flowering is called: Precooling

14. An explant is: Plant produced from a tissue (meristem)

15. The word photoperiod has to do with light: Duration

16. Growing medium kept too wet will deprive plants of: Oxygen

17. A pathogen is: Microorganism that causes a disease

18. The following florist crops are propagated by cuttings:  Carnation, chrysanthemum, poinsettia, azalea

19. Green plants manufacture sugar in the presence of sunlight. This process is called: Photosynthesis

20. The highest percentage of florist industry sales are made by: Telephone

21. Hydrangeas are forced for the following holidays: Easter, Mother’s Day, Memorial Day

22. The Alstroemeria is most closely related to the following plant: Easter lily 23. Costs associated with making an arrangement, decorating a blooming plant, or creating wedding flowers are called _______: Direct costs

24. ______play a powerful role in advertising floral shops and in most locations leads all other media in sales return for dollar spent: Window displays

25. Systemic pesticides control the pest by: Dissolving into and being moved by the plant sap

26. The primary colors are: Red, yellow, and blue

27. When ordering flowers from a wholesale florist, one should consider the following: Availability, keeping quality, price 

28. The most commonly used material for holding flowers is: Floral foam

29. Foliage below the water line should be removed to: Prevent the leaves from decaying, which foul the water

30. Flowers such as roses and carnations should be stored at: 36-40 degrees F

31. An example of a mass flower is: Rose

32. The size of the bow for a corsage should be: Slightly wider than the petals of the corsage

33. Pre-formed pot covers used on potted plants are called: Speed covers

34. Florist azaleas are: Small evergreen shrubs

35. Which of the following is provided for a plant by its leaves: A food factory

36. The most important cut flower crops in the US are: Mum, rose, carnation

37. The area within a composition occupied by material is called ______: Positive space

38. The flowers of Easter lilies last longer if: The stamens are removed

39. The larger the gauge of florist wire indicates that the thickness is: Thinner

40. Deluxe floral foam is used to: Hold heavy stemmed flowers

41. The number of flowers usually in a cymbidium orchid corsage is: One

42. The most important environmental factor in orchid culture is: Watering and water quality

43. The acceleration of flowering by manipulation of environmental conditions is known as: Forcing

44. Mass marketing is the sale of floral products: All of the above

45. Optimum temperatures for poinsettia growth are: 60-80 degrees

46. Costs associated with making an arrangement, decorating a blooming plant or creating wedding flowers are called: Direct costs

47. The function (s) of floral preservatives is(are) to: They provide the flowers with added nutrients while controlling the pH level of the water.

48. A grouping of closely spaced flowers, net and accessories in a hand-held floral arrangement is called: Nosegay

49. Field production of gladiolus is accomplished by using: Corms

50. This fungus attacks a wide variety of ornamental plants, probably causing more losses than any other single pathogen: Botrytis cinerea

51. Distorted flowers characterized by shorter petals, which give the rose a flattened appearance are called: Bullheads

52.  The lower the number, the thicker the wire and narrower the ribbon.

53. Specialty cut flowers may be defined as: Cut flowers other than roses, carnations and chrysanthemums

54. The size relationship of a floral arrangement with its surroundings is: Scale

55. The showy red, pink or white portions of the poinsettia are called: Bracts

56. A speckled leaf appearance with fine silky strands between leaves and on lower leaf surfaces suggests the presence of:  Spider mite

57. All of the following are bulbous and tuberous-rooted plants except: Snapdragons

58. The majority of florist businesses are conducted in one location and annual gross sales are generally under: $250,000

59. The unit of heat measurement used in the greenhouse industry is the: BTU

60. There are three basic types of pots that are commonly used in the greenhouse industry. Which of the following is not one of the basic types: Designer pot

61. Flowers, which are worn by men and pinned on a lapel, are called: Boutonnieres

62. This growth regulator increases the flower size of geranium and accelerates flowering in cyclamen: Gibberellic acid

63. A more expensive decorative container into which a potted plant can be set is a:

64. Analogous color harmony utilizes: Two or three adjacent colors on the color wheel

65. When completing flowers for a wedding you may work with all but one of the following arrangements except : Full couch spray arrangement

66. Certain plants are quite suitable for use in terrariums. eg: Friendship Plant

67. These summer-blooming perennials produce dense, bristly balls of blue color:
Globe thistle

68. When growing orchids, a hygrometer is used to measure: Humidity

69. The hook method of wiring for floral arrangements is used for ______: Flat headed flowers

70. Upper leaves which show interveinal chlorosis probably suffer from: An iron deficiency

71. Marigold seed which fails to emerge, or seedlings which die soon after emerging: from wet soil are the result of: Damping off

72. The flowers and leaves of a rose are mottled and streaked with silver, and dusty black droppings have collected. This damage is indicative of: Thrips

73. African violets are typically propagated by: Leaf cuttings

74. ______________ is the act of cutting flower stems properly and providing them with the proper treatment at any stage of the distribution process: Processing

75. The pricing method based on 40% of retail selling price is: Wholesale pricing

76. Cut branches of evergreen 20-30 inches long are called: Boughs

77. The term “texture”, as it applies to plants, includes such adjectives as: Fine, medium and coarse

78. A design that uses a complementary color scheme is one that: Uses colors that are opposite to one another on the color wheel

79. Cool colors include color combinations like: Blue-green, blue, blue-violet and violet

80. The type of plant that lives for more than two years is: Perennials

81. The reason for putting irregularly shaped stones or broken pieces of pottery into the bottom of a pot containing flowering plants is: It helps the soil to drain after being watered

82. What is the purpose of ‘pinching’ plants: Pinching helps the plant to become bushier

83. This element is essential for strong stems, strong roots, and deep flower color. A deficiency in plants shows up as weak stems, and a yellowing and browning of leaves at their tips and edges: Potassium

84. The best time to water flowering plants is: In the morning

85. How many essential nutrients are essential to plant growth and reproduction:

86. When is the best time to divide a mature chrysanthemum: When it is about three inches tall in the spring

87. The pH on soil test results stands for: Potential hydrogen

88. When cutting roses to use indoors or to remove spent blossoms: Cut directly below the first strong, five-leaflet leaf

89. A cutting garden is a plot of land set aside for the purpose of growing flowers for what use: Indoor bouquets only

90. A correct way to remove mealy bugs from plants is: Dab each bug with a cotton swab dipping in rubbing alcohol

91. Fertilizer that you add to your flowering plants contains the following elements in the correct order: Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium

92. Japanese style of floral arrangement is known as: Ikebana

93. What type of water supply do cut flowers need to transport food and to keep the stems stiff: Constant water supply

94. Heavy-headed flowers, such as large mums, often bend by the flower head, nearly breaking off. What should be done to temporarily improve this situation:
Insert tooth picks pointed through the bloom into the stem

95. A _____ has a flower bud within it surrounded by layers of food supply: True bulb

96. Plants need which part of the visible spectrum for good foliage development:

97. Abnormally streaked or striped flower petals are a symptom of ‘flower breaking’. This problem is common tulips, lilies and gladiolus and is caused by:

98. What is the most important thing to do for bulbs to produce flowers during succeeding years: Grow a good crop of foliage

99. Which type of rose has multiple large flowers on a single stem: Floribundas

100. What is a good sign that potted plants need to be repotted: New leaves are quite a bit smaller than older ones

101. A ______________is a floral piece commonly displayed at funerals:
Standing spray

102. Most indoor foliage plants need which kind of lighting: Bright indirect light

103. In order to survive in the florist business, an owner/manager must be able to determine the true value of the product and strive for improvement of the perceived value. This is called Profit Pricing

104. The principle of total compatibility of all parts of an arrangement with each other is termed: Harmony

105. The term hard good means: Nonperishable items used in designing such as containers

106. A process used by growers to produce well-branched, compact plants with many flowers is called: Pinching

107. Cut carnations are classified into two groups: Standards and miniatures

108. Food is translocated implants through a tissue called the: Phloem

109. Parallel leaf venation, lack of annular rings, and floral parts in multiples of three, are distinguishing characteristics of: Monocots

110. Transpiration is: The loss of water vapor from the plant

111. The adjustment of a plant from production conditions to interior conditions is called: Acclimatization

112. Peat is often mixed into the growing medium of container plants because it:
Has good air and water holding capacities

113. A poinsettia crop that is four weeks late in flowering for Christmas was very likely exposed to: Lighting at night

114. Damping-off disease of seedlings is caused by: Fungus

115. Food is manufactured in the leaves of plants when they are exposed to light. This process is called: Photosynthesis

116. A ‘stretched’ plant is one that: Has grown excessively long stems

117. Chrysanthemums and poinsettias are grown commercially under long nights. This is needed to: Initiate and develop flowers

118. A good substitute for sand, this material provides for aeration in the growing media: Perlite

119. The timing of an Easter lily crop is complicated because: The earlier the date of Easter, the longer it takes to force them

120. Most greenhouse crops stop growing when the air temperature goes above:
90 oF

121. Soil structure refers to: The arrangement of soil particles

122. With the exception of the horizontal design, how high in relation to its width should a design be made: 1-1/2 to 2 times the width

123. Focus in floral design refers to: Attraction of the observers’ eye to a central point

124. Cut flowers and ‘greens’ are held in refrigerators at a temperature range of:
35-40 oF

125. A floral arrangement should be finished on all sides if it is to be placed:
In front of a mirror

126. When designing a floral arrangement, after the container has been prepared, one should: Establish the lines

127. The following is an analysis for a complete fertilizer for commercial use:

128. This citric acid solution causes flowers to take up water rapidly to prevent dehydration after flowers have been dry packed: Hydrating solution

129. To create a strong focal point, a designer should _______ at the focal point: Use flowers with a bright chroma

130. Use of the following materials is regulated by both Federal and state laws:
Insecticides, fungicides, miticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators

131. Early warning signs of poisoning of humans by an organophosphate insecticide may include: Tightness in chest, narrowing pupils, headache

132. If you have a work related problem that you do not know how to solve, you should take it to your supervisor: With alternative solutions

133. If a customer you are serving has a complaint, the first thing that you should do is: Listen very carefully

134. Gladioli are: Used a ‘line’ flowers in a floral design

135. Overhead costs include everything not accounted for in: Direct costs

136. A florist is most likely to be promptly paid when charged account bills are mailed: Monthly

137. When should plants be watered: Just prior to wilting or water stress occurs

138. The principles of design are fundamental truths that have evolved as the various art forms have developed.  the major principles of design: Price

139. In traditional arrangements, materials with higher visual weight are used lower in the arrangement to create stable effect; they are sunken a little further into the arrangement for depth. Identify the significant principles of design that are related to balance: Stability & depth

140. The characteristics of a formal arrangement associated with a formal arrangement: Arrangement may be placed off-center

141. As the art of floral design has become more formalized through practice, teaching and writing; there has developed a group of traditional guidelines that are frequently cited by people involved in flower arranging. Which of the following, if any, is part of these traditional guidelines: Both of the above

142. When certain elements are provided in excess to plants, uptake of other nutrients may be hindered. On example of a mineral antagonism is the _________interaction; a 1:1 ratio is recommended for most floriculture crops: Nitrogen-Potassium

143. Which item is NOT suitable for pressing: Daffodil

144. When planning for a wedding, there are basic considerations that the florist must address in order to properly assist the bride for this important occasion. Which, if any of the items below are NOT one of these factors: Method of payment

145. Optimum temperature for poinsettia growth is _____________ degrees F. 60 to 80

146. There are three basic “C” aims for selling in a flower shop. Which of the following is NOT included in the three “C”’s: Contain the cost

147. When utilizing the ratio markup method a 5 to 1 item with the total wholesale value of the material costing $12.00 would retail for _____: $60.00

148. The sales showroom is separate from the work area. It should be neat and appealing with adequate floor space for customers  to move about. Which NOT typical of a sales area: Design table for making arrangements

149. Generally, roses are graded according to _________________ of stem: Length

150. The bract that encloses a flower cluster is a : Spathe

151. Your orchids are facing a pest problem. The buds, flowers and tender new growth are pitted or stunted. Tiny insects are often visible. A sticky fluid secreted by the insects provides a medium for growth of sooty mold and attracts ants. The most likely problem is _: Aphids

152. A group of orchids have a problem caused by improper culture. The foliage is dark green and healthy, but the plant won’t flower. The probable cause is _______: Too little light

153. Fungus gnat damage to potted plants is caused by the _________: Larval stage

154. A type of propagation in which the propagule remains attached to the parent plant is termed ______: Layering

155. Short, crooked rose peduncles often result from _______: Excessive vigor

156. The greatest control over the cooling phase of Easter lily production is provided by ______: Controlled temperature forcing

57. Secondary macro-nutrients are:  Calcium, magnesium, and sulfur

158. Floral arrangements designed with visual paths along which the eye is led from one point of interest to another are called _______: Line arrangements

159. The flower part that contains the pollen is the: Anther

160. Nosegay originated during which period in the history of floral design:  English-Georgian

161. The number one foliage production state in acres and wholesale value is _____: Florida

162. An arrangement should be _______ times the height of a tall container or the length of an elongated container: 1.5 to 2

163. A mum cultivar with a single flower more than 4 inches in diameter, having all lateral buds removed is called a _______: Standard mum

164. The light intensity at which respiration and photosynthesis are balanced is _______: All of the above

165. The florist’s chrysanthemum is a _________: All of the above

166. Plant texture is determined by _______: B and C – foliage density and plant shape

167. A brown foam which is easily penetrated by delicate floral stems and aids in the arrangement of silk and dry flowers is _______: Dry foam

168. For optimum vase life, most cut flowers should be stored at temperatures close to: 40 ºF

169. Appropriate refrigeration of cut floral materials involves both temperature and humidity control to: slow down respiration

170. The _______method of wiring is commonly used to wire flowers having large, thickened calyxes such as carnations and roses: Piercing

171. The term that refers to all the petals of a flower collectively is: Corolla

172. Irregularly shaped holes with smooth edges appear in Celosia leaves. Some leaves are even missing. The plants should be treated for: Slugs and snails

173. Secondary colors consist of: Orange, green, and violet

174. “Plant lice” refers to: Aphids

175. A major problem in standard carnation production resulting in asymmetrical flowers is: Calyx splitting

176. The primary macro-nutrients are: Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium

177. The natural process by which plants grow in the direction of the strongest light source is called: Phototropism

178. A palmately compound leaf has: Leaflet

179. If a florist was limited to two tools, the least useful ones to have would be:
Oasis and cardettes

180. A hue with white added is: Tint

181. One of the earliest cultures to use flowers were the Egyptians. They valued __________________ and __________________: Simplicity and repetition

182. Light energy, carbon dioxide, and water enter into the process of photosynthesis, through which: Carbohydrates are formed

183. Choosing the right heating system for a particular greenhouse depends on all but one of the following variables. Identify the one that is not applicable: Type of containers

184. ___________is generally added to water when processing flowers in a retail floral shop: Biocide

185. Hanging plants used in interior landscapes function to: Smooth squared edges found in the architecture

186. The main reason many tropical foliage plants decline indoors is related to:

187. To properly water indoor plants, consider: All of the above

188. Gloxinia and African violet are members of the plant family: Gesneriaceae

189. Growth-promoting substances are often applied to the bases of cuttings when propagating plants in order to: Speed the development of roots on the cutting

190. A ten-week group variety of chrysanthemum means: They bloom ten weeks after the start of short days

191. The new growth of a Dieffenbachia is weak and spindly, with large gaps between the leaves. The problem is probably: Lack of light

192. A container often used at Thanksgiving for floral arrangements and symbolic of a plentiful harvest is the: Cornucopia

193. All of the protoplasm in a cell, except the nucleus, is called: Cytoplasm

194. When black is added to a hue, the resulting color is called a: Shade

195. The first major civilization to have professional floral designers was the: Greeks

196. The least expensive method of propagating plants is by: Seeds

197. There are three main ingredients in floral preservatives. Which of the following is not one of these ingredients: Caking agent

198. The most important environmental factor regulating flower initiation in bulbous species is: Temperature

199. A ______ gauge wire is most commonly used for funeral work: 18

200. To increase the keeping quality of plant materials with hollow stems, the stems should be: Filled with water

201. Of the following, which gauge of wire has the thinnest diameter: 36

202. The average humidity recommended for interior plants is: 40 to 70%

203. When a florist uses both glossy and varied textures, the role of the varied texture is to _______: Hold the viewer’s attention after it is attracted to the glossy texture

204. Commercial flower crops are sometimes watered to cause leaching. This means: Watering to remove excess soluble salts from the growing medium

205. ________ is used to secure the floral foam to the design container: 
Anchor tape

206. Light intensity is expressed in units of: Foot-candles

207. When making hand-tied bouquets, the stems should be positioned: In a spiraling manner

208. Interveinal refers to: Between the veins

209. Transition in a floral arrangement is the process of rhythmic change through progression, sequence, or ____ : Gradation

210. The following is not a characteristic of an insect: Two tentacles

211. When cells are turgid, they are: Inflated

212. What nutrient is deficient if the deficiency symptoms are found on older/lower leaves and the plant is dark green or reddish-purple with short, slender stalks:

213. ______ is the ribbon size typically used for corsage work: 3

214. Size of a casket spray is determined by: Budget

215. The most common stem support mechanic used by florists in fresh cut flower arrangements is: Floral foam

216. The optimum growing temperature for most bedding plants is:65 degree Fahrenheit : 72 degree Fahrenheit

217. Roses are propagated by ___________: Grafting

218. DIF control is a method of controlling the growth of plants. DIF refers to: Difference between day and night temperatures

219. A design that uses a combination of both natural and manmade materials in an unnatural manner to create a new image is called a: Interpretive design

220. A design that is a naturalistic design in which flowers and plant material is placed as they would grow in nature is called: Vegetative design

221. The design that consists of several layers of materials, varying in size and texture to create a flowering effect is called a: Cascade design

222. The asymmetrical balanced design of few materials, usually placed in groups that emphasizes forms and lines is called a: Formal linear design

223. This design is the easiest for a beginner because it does not require a focal point: Round

224. What is the purpose of plant propagation: To produce new and better breeds of plants at a fast rate

225. What is percent germination and how can it be calculated: GP = seeds germinated/total seeds x 100 .

226. The pierce wiring technique works best on flowers that have a _______ _________: Thick Calyx

227. Successful advertising to a target audience is based on three profit “P”’s. Which one of the following is not part of the three profit “P”s: Persuasive

228. Which of the following is NOT important when considering water quality for fresh flowers: Temperature

229. Which of the following is NOT important for a floral designer to ask when designing arrangements for a specific room: What percent of the budget does the room cost

230. Which of the following designs is not suitable for a wedding: Full couch spray arrangement

231. An organism capable of causing a disease is called: Pathogen

232. To insure blue color in hydrangeas, you would: Fertilize with aluminum sulfate

233. Air layered plant are removed from the parent plant: As soon as the roots are visible

234. The measure of how poisonous a chemical is after a single exposure is ____________ toxicity: Acute

235. What is the fertilizer element that is used by the plant to make chlorophyll molecules: Nitrogen

236. IPM is an acronym for: Integrated pest management

237. The fertilizer element ____________ increases the plant’s resistance to disease: Potassium

238. Which of the following fertilizer elements is NOT a micro-nutrient: Sulfur

239. Kitty litter, cornmeal, sand and borax are all types of: Desiccants

240. Which of the following fertilizer element is NOT a macro-nutrient: Zinc

241. The most commonly used growth regulator to shorten stem length on lilies is:

242. An economic reason for pruning a plant is to: Rejuvenate its growth

243. According to sales figures, what is the most popular cut flower sold in the United States: Chrysanthemum

244. A number 9 florist ribbon is: 13/8” wide

245. Chemicals that enter the plant sap and move throughout the entire plant are:
Systemic poisons

246. Which of the following is not generally considered part of the Floriculture Industry: Vegetable transplants

247. Texture in an arrangement refers to: The surface appearance of the arrangement

248. Wooden picks are used to: Used to extend and strengthen the stems of flowers for insertion into the floral foam

249. When a florist greens an arrangement, they are: Adding foliage to it so that the mechanics are hidden

250. A wire service: Is a clearinghouse of floral orders

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