High Yielding Varieties Programme (H.Y.V.P.) (1964-65)
It was introduced in 1964-65 with a new dimension of agricultural production created in the community development project. HYV of Wheat, Paddy and introduced in selected 100 districts but later on it spread in other area also. The objective of this programme is to adopt HYV for maximum production.
For optimizing the yields of the available high yielding varieties of rice, it has been found necessary to advance their sowing time. Efforts were directed to educate the farmers to raise rice nurseries in advance of the main kharif season. A special programme for timely supply of seedlings, by raising community nurseries at tube-well points and on government farms, was undertaken in three command areas in Bihar. This programme has given encouraging results and is being extended to Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal during 1975 kharif.
Watershed Development Programme (W D P)
Watershed development refers to the conservation regeneration and the judicious use of all the resources – natural (like land, Water plants, animals) and human – within the watershed area. Watershed Management tries to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources on the one side and man and animals on the other. Since in is the man which is primarily responsible for degradation of environment, regeneration and conservation can only be possible by promoting awakening and participation among the people who inhabit the watersheds.
Man and his environment are interdependent. The changes in the environment directly affect the lives of the people depending on it. A degraded environment means degraded quality of life of the people. Environmental degradation can be tackled effectively through the holistic development of the watershed. A watershed provides a natural geo-hydrological unit for planning any developmental initiative.
Integrated Tribal Development Project (I T D P)
The Programme on Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) under Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) is being implemtnted since the Fifth Five Year Plan wit specific objectives of reducing poverty, improving educational status an eliminating exploitation of the tribal families. The programme was evaluated by the programme Evaluation Organisation (PEO) in 1996 to assess the effectiveness an pergformance of planning and monitoring arrangements, and impact of the programmes on the well being of the Scheduled Tribes. The report was released in July, 1997.
The fundings of the study indicate that a large majority of the tribal fees that they are better off now in terms of possession of productive and utility assets and access to food, clothing, transport facilities, electricity, schools etc. than they were 10 years ago. Though, the administrative arrangements to execute this programme existed in all the states as per Central guidelines, the system of decentralised planning, implementation and monitoring as envisaged in the guidelines for the scheme were not operational in most of the states. The delivery system of the programme was not effective and a very large number of tribal farmers were found to use irrigation water, High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, fertilizers and other inputs form private sources, even though a signigicant proporrtion of funds in being spent on free delivery of such inputs. Inadequate facilities ofr primary education and health were also observed.
In order to improve the situation it has been suggested that ITDP Project Officer should be made more effective in planning and implementation of Tribal Development Programmes. It is also necessary to assess the deprivation of tribal in all the areas of social concern for adoption of an appropriate principle for determining the size of Tribal Sub-plan and allocation of funds across various sectors. This must be backed by a strong monitoring mechanism.
Integrated Rural Development Programme (I R D P)
IRDP launched on October 2nd. 1980 all over the Country and accordingly all the 15 Blocks of Boudh- Kandhamal district have been covered under the Scheme. Since then, prior the above period, IRDP was in operation in 8 blocks of the district since 1978-79. The I.R.D.P. continues to be a major poverty alleviation programme in the field of Rural Development. The objective of I.R.D.P. is to enable identified rural poor families to cross the poverty line by providing productive assets and inputs to the target groups. The assets which could be in primary, secondary or tertiary sector are provided through financial assistance in the form of subsidy by the Govt. and term credit advanced by financial institutions. The programme is implemented in all the blocks in the country as a centrally sponsored scheme funded on 50:50 basis by the Centre and State. The Scheme is merged with another scheme named S.G.S.Y. since 01.04.1999.