Barley Cultivation Point Wise Notes For Competitive Exam

Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

  • More suitable than wheat in India
  • Due to hardy nature can withstand adverse agro-environments (drought, salinity,
    alkalinity)
  • Arabi cereal
  • Food (cooler region)
  • Staple food in Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan
  • In European countries, used only as break fast food
  • Used as “Missi roti”
  • Used for malt, beer, whisky and industrial alcohol, vinegar
  • Energy rich drinks like bournvita, boost, horlicks
  • Reduce cholesterol level in liver
  • Cattle feed and horse feed (in USA)
  • Great demand to malting industry
  • Protein-11 5%
  • Grains broken and roughly grinded into pead barley
  • Pearl barley is used to make ‘barley water’ (diuretic and good for kidney disorders)

Origin-

  • Abyssinia (for hulled, awned type barley)
  • South-East Asia (China, Tibet and Nepal) (for hulless six rowed varieties)

Cultivated spp-

  • Six rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare)- most commonly cultivated type
  • Two rowed barley : (Hordeum distichum)
  • Irregular barley: (Hordeum irregular)

Area and distribution-

  • mainly grown in Russia, Canada, Germany, France
  • Russia ranks first in acreage and production
  • In India- UP (50%)> Rajasthan (20%)> MP>Punjab>Haryana

Climate

  • similar to wheat
  •  well in cool climate (12-15°C)
  • tolerate frost
  •  rain at ripening stage causes grain discolouration
  •  high drought and sodic tolerance

Soil-

  • Sandy to moderately heavy loam soil of Indo-gangetic plains
  • salt tolerant crop
  • best substitute for saline and sodic soils
  • acidic soils are not suitable

Season

  • Rainfed crop-Oct- Nov
  • Irrigated/Hill zone – Nov
  • Late sown – Dec

Seed rate-

  • irrigated crop – 75-80 kg/ha
  • rainfed crop-80-100 kg/ha
  • saline soil-100 kg/ha
  • hill zone-200-300 kg/ha

Spacing-

  • irrigated crop – 23 cm row
  • rainfed crop – 23-25 cm

Depth of sowing –

  • irrigated crops – 5 c
  • rainfed crop – 6-8 cm

Varieties-

  • Husk-less (Karan 18 & 19) -preferred/ demanded from farmers
  • Hulled barley
  • Hills – Himani, Dolma, Kailash
  • Rainfed – Ratna (IARI), Vijay, Azad, Ameru (best for malt)
  • Irrigated– Jyoti, Ranjit, Clipper
  • Dual purpose (fodder and grain)- Ratna, Karan2

Land preparation –

  • fine seedbed, shallow plough
  • Seed treatment- Captan/Thiram
  • Overnight seed soaking

Nutrient management-

  • FYM at 12.5 t/ha
  • NPK fertilizer (kg/ha)-

Rainfed crop – 40: 20:20

Irrigated crop – 60: 30: 20

Malt production – 80: 40:3

Method of sowing

  • broadcasting or Pora and Kera method

Water management-

  • Water required-200-250 mm
  • 2-3 irrigations
  • most critical stages – active tillering stage and grain filling

Weed control-

  • main weed-Chenopodium album, Phalaris minor and Avena fatua
  • critical period – 30 days
  • Isoproturon (post emergence application)
  • Pendimethalin (pre-emergence)

cropping system-

  • mixed with chickpea, mustard
  • short duration crop
  • more suitable for rotation than wheat

Harvest

  • timely harvest ensures quality grain
  • Threshing by animal or mechanical threshers
  • Storage – 14% moisture

Yield –

  •  3.0-3.5 t/ha (grain)
  •  4.0-5.0 t/ha (straw)

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