Starch Slurry in Water
(Liquefaction Bacterial amylase, 550C +Dextrins)
(Saccarification Fungal amylase)
Fructose + glucose
· Variation created in tissue culture is called “Somaclonal variation”.
· The specialized cells (B – cells) in the spleen and lymph glands release antibodies.
· Monoclonal antibodies is applied to a group of identical antibodies recognizing the same antigen.
· Callus – A tissue arising from disorganized proliferation of cells.
· Subculture – A septic transfer of a part of a culture to fresh medium.
· Passage time – The time interval between two successive sub cultures.
· Suspension culture – Cells (or) cell aggregates culture in liquid medium.
· Batch culture – Cell suspension grown in a fixed volume of liquid medium.
· Explant – A plant organ (or) piece of tissue used to initiate culture.
· Excise – To remove a piece of tissue (or) an organ from its parent source.
· Meristemoid – Cluster of meristematic cells with in Mcallus with a potential to form primordia.
· Embryoid – Non zygote embryo formed in culture.
· In vitro – “In glass”; In vivo – “In life”.
· Parasexual hybridization (or) somatic hybridization – Hybridisation by non sexual methods.
Eg: Potoplast fusion.
· Heterokaryon – A cell in which 2 (or) more nuclei of unlike genetic make up are present.
· Synkaryon – Hybrid cell produced by the fusion of nuclei in homokaryon.
Bits: In mass selection genotype of selected plants is not known since progeny test is not done.
· During plant introduction the introduced material should be accompanied by a “Phytosanitory” certificate.
· Allotctraploid otherwise termed as “Amphidiploid”.
· The homozygous lines developed by controlled selfing in cross pollinated crops are called “Inbred lines”.
· Parent to progeny relationship is known in Pedigree method.
· The difference between the mean of the original population and mean of the selected plants is termed as “Selection differential”.
· Mass selection is based on “Phenotype”.
· The percentage of plants selected from a population to be advanced to next generation is called “Selection intensity”.
· The performance of a double cross hybrid in maize can be predicted based on the performance of non parental single crosses.
· Cytoplasmic male sterility is used for production of vegetables, and ornamental plants.
· Genetic male sterility is used for hybrid production of “Castor”.
· Modified flower – Bulbils.
· The first cytoplasmic genetic male sterile line in Sorghum – CSH -7.
· Maximum amount of segregations are observed in F2 generation.
· Bajra composite – Balaji, Maize synthetic – Amber.
Leaf blight resistant cotton – Varalakshmi.
· Induced mutant in Groundnut MC -4, Resistance to tikka leaf spot – Ah – 45.
· Heteroplast – Cell containing foreign organells.
· Genetic engineering – manipulation of the genetic archilecture of the organism at DNA level (or) molecular level.
Explant——–> Callus——-> Plant let
· Tissue culture techniques are being used for effective vegetative propagation of horticultural (or) agricultural crops. These techniques are called “Micropropagation”.
· Activated charcoal stimulates embryogenesis in plants.
· The most popular medium for anther culture is N6 medium.
· In anther culture in rice pretreatment is done with “ethereal”.
· Iron is crucial for pollen embryo development in tobacco.
· Dry heat – metals, glassware, wet heat – paper material, liquids.
· Some media components are unstable at high temperature and must be sterilized by “Ultra filtration” at high temperature.
· Working area is generally surface sterilized with either ethanol (or) isopropanol.
· Organogenesis in tissue culture is controlled mostly by a balance between cytokinin and auxin.
· In callus of Medicago sativa high kinetin, 2,4 – D ratio stimulates “rhizogenesis” high 2,4 – D; Kinetin ratio – caulogenesis.
· For embryo culture MS medium and Monnier’s medium favorable.
· ‘Sucrose’ is added to embroyo culture to maintain suitable osmatic pressure.
· “Casein – hydrolysate” (CH) amino acid complex increases embryonic differentiation and the size of the embryo.
· Coconut milk is referred to as “Endosperm factor”.
Most of the responding sps to endosperm culture – Euphorbiaceae, Santalaceae, Loranthaceae.
· Cultured endosperm of coffee does synthesize – ‘Caffeine’.
· The middle lamella is dissolved by using “Pectinase”.
· Protoplast may be cultured either by “liquid drop method” (or) plating method (Common method).
· To induce protoplast fusion suitable chemical agents called “Fusogen” are used. These include PEG, Polyvinyl alcohol, NaNO3.
· Cybrid may be defined as plant (or) cell which is a cytoplasmic hybrid produced by fusion of protoplast and Lytoplast.
· Cybrids have two different cytoplasm and one nuclei.
· Vitrification – In repeated cycles of invitro shoot multiplications often a percentage of cultures show water soaked, almost translucent leaves. Such inhibits a rate of growth.
· The heart of the biotechnology is the “bioreactor” where the bio-transformation takes place.
· Fluid flow characteristics obey Newton laws of viscosity.
· The basic types of fermentation processes – Semisolid fermentation and submerged fermentation.
· “Enzyme assay” is to determine how much the enzyme of known characteristic is present in the tissue homogenate, fluid (or) partially purified extract.
· Enzymes purification follows an important step called “Extraction”
· The crude extract is treated with absorbant gels like “Zn(OH)2 for removal of pigments.
· “Affinity Chromatography” is a very bio specific one and it is ideally suited for the separation of one protein from all other.
· “Urakinase” from human urine, used for cleaning wounds and removal of blood clots.
· Nutrients for cancer cells – A sparagine, glutamine are removed by asparaginase and glutaminase.
· Glucose oxidase for determining blood glucose.
· LDH (Lactic dehydrogenase) for lactate and pyruvate.
· A glucose oxidae – Catalase is effective in removing O2.
· Some of the soil enzymes – Cellulase, nitrogenases, urease etc.
· Biosensors can measure sugars, proteins, hormones in body fluids pollutant in water.
· Enzyme biosensors – Alcohol Oxidase, Invertase, glucose oxidase,
Microbial bio sensors – Brevibacterium incto fermentum.
· Recombinant DNA is method of transferring relatively small amount of genetic information from one cell type to the other.
· Enzymes which synthesize DNA – Terminal transferase, DNA polymerase Restriction endonuclease.
· Enzymes that degrade DNA – Nuclease S1, Exonuclease III.
· Enzymes that joins DNA sequence – T4 DNA ligase.
· Enzymes which modify the 5 terminal of DNA – Calf intestinal
Phosphatase, T4 polynucleotide kinase.
· The sequence recognized by restriction enzymes are “Palindromes”.
· In case of mammalian cells, there is only one potential vector the “Simian virus” (SV –40).
· Many animals “tumor virus” contain reverse transcriptase.
· A useful plasmid is “pBR 322” (resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin) it has 4322 bp.
Transgenic organisms – These are the outcome of the recombinant DNA technology.
· Cauliflower mosaic virus (CMV) and Gemini virus have also been used as vectors for plant transformations.
· Yeast are the most popular eukaryotic cell for cloning.
· Bacteria involved in fermentation processes are “Chemo-organotrophes”.
· The first therapeutic agent produced by recombinant DNA technology using E. coli is “human insulin”.
· E. coli contain endotoxins and pyrogenic lipopoly saccharides.
· Hybridoma cells are constructed by fusing a mouse myeloma and B. Cells (skin cancer cells).
· Starch is the important – CHO currently used in fermentation process.
· Batch and fed batch fermentation – Closed system.
· All the substrate is added at the begining of fermentation in batch but in fed batch they are added in increments throughout the process.
· Continuous fermentation – Open system in which medium is continuously added.
· Stock cultures are kept in the laboratory in freeze dried from deep frozen in liquid nitrogen.
· Some of the flocculating agents – Isin glass (a collagen type protein derived from a tropical fish) gelatin, tannic acid.
· Centrifugation may be the only practicable separation of cells from viscous media.
· Tangential flow filtration (or) cross flow filtration is an effective method for separation of cells from liquid where high value products are involved.
· Citric acids and lactic acids produced by fermentation are precipitated as their “Calcium salts”.
· The most commonly used ion-exchange celluloses are “Diethyl amino ethyl” (DEAE) and carboxy methyl, cellulose anion and cation exchanges respectively.
· The most commonly studied secondary metabolites are “Antibiotics”.
· For gelling more amount of starter culture, we can used “Seed rank fermentor”.
· The dis advantages with micropropagation of adult tree is browning of the medium.
· Somaclonal variation is the consequence of genetic abnormalities.
· Proloplast obtained from endosperm cells gave best results in tobacco.
· The capacity of a cell to give rise to a whole plant – “totipotency”.
· The artificial seed of carrot somatic embryo’s are coated by polyethelene oxide. (PEO).
· The filamentous fungus that is genetically engineered for production of proteins of mammalian origin is Aspergillus niger.
· The important yeast used in industry – Saccharomyces cerviciae.
· S.I unit of enzyme – “Ketal”.
· Cosmids vectors are used for cloning large fragments of DNA.
· Detergents – Proteases.
· In gel chromatography molecular wt. is the criteria for separation.
· For production of ‘SCP’ Protein: RNA ratio must be highest
· The amount of enzyme per unit wt. of protein is termed as “Turn over of the enzyme”.
· Enucleate protoplast is termed as cytoplast.
· Synthetic seeds – Somatic embryo genesis, virus free plants – shoot tip culture.
Somatic hybrids – Protoplast fusion.
· Inter specific hybrids – Embryo culture – Rare hybrids also
Inter generic hybrids – Protoplast culture.
Triploids – Endosperm culture.
Uniform diploids – Meristem culture.
· A vehicle which is used to carry other species of DNA is called vector.
· Plant oils used in industrial fermentation media are palm oil
· Human viral protein produced on large scale for medical purpose – Interferon.
· Organism used for riboflavin (B2) fermentation Ashbyo gossypii.
· Procem of origin of shoot, bud (or) roots from tissue (or) suspension culture organiogenesis.
· Cells (or) cell aggregates culture in liquid medium is termed as suspension culture.
· The most serious objection for clonal propagation through callusing is due to genetic instability.
· Usual source for large scale production of enzymes is Microbial cells.
· Homozygous tobacco plant developed through anther culture –F.
· The pinocytosis property of protoplasts is utilized in transfer of genome of the one species to others.
· Small circular DNA found inside some bacteria is Plasmid.