· Fruits and vegetables are also recognized as protective foods.
· Loss of sensitivity of skin, paralysis, enlargement of heart, loss of appetite – Vitamin B2 (Thiamine).
· Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) required for growth and health of the skin abundantly prevent in pomegranate.
· Deficiency of phosphorus leads to bleeding of gums.
· Fruits and vegetables which contain, CHO’s are called ‘Energy Foods’.
· Fruits and Vegetables also supply roughages (Cellulose and pectin’s) – prevents constipation.
· Tree fruits Deciduous Pome fruits – syccykebt Eg: Apple, Pears
Drupe fruits (Stone fruits) Eg: Peach, Plum
Ever green fruits. Eg: Mango, Sapota, Citrus, Papaya
· Small fruits – Eg: Grape, raspberry, black berry.
· Nut fruits – Eg: Coconut, almond.
· Vine crops – Cucumber, pumpkin, squash.
· Cole crops – Cabbage, Cauliflower.
· Salads – Lettuce, Coriander.
· Perinnials – Asparagus, drumstick.
· Greens – Spinach, Palak.
· Arboriculture – Raising of perennial trees for shade (or) avenue. Eg: Encalyptus, Casuarina.
· Fruit technology – Processing and preservation of fruits.
· High temperature in tomato wilt result in blossom end rot; in lettuce tip – burn and “Bolting of onion”.
· More common form of killing by freezing – Intracellular ice formation.
· Root injury when the soil temperature drops below – 100C to – 150C.
· Immaturity of the tissues is the chief factor associate with early winter injury.
· Plant which are unable to stand low temperature even for a single night are called “Tender plants”.
· Rest period – Unfavorable conditions with in the plant.
· Dormant period – Unfavorable conditions in environment.
· The influence of light intensity is due largely to its effects on “Photosynthesis”.
· Blue light – Normal leaves and stem stunted growth.
· Blue + Red – Photosynthesis.
· Red – elongation of plant parts.
· Length of the day controls the time when “Protein synthesis” takes place.
· Fruits that mature during rainy season contain less Sugar and more acid.
· Citrus suffered in black cotton soils from ‘die-back disease” in Vodlapudi orange.
· Sandy loam soils of Telangana – Chalka soils.
· Peaty soils are suited for growing spices and plantation crops.
· The beneficial effect of wind break is felt a distance equal to three times its height.
· There should be a spacing of 12 m between the row of windbreak and the first orchard row.
· The angle branches make with the main trunk is known as “Crotch”.
· Planting should be preferably in the afternoon rather than in the morning.
· Arrangement of plants in the orchard is known as “Layout”.
· Trees grown at the centre of the square – Filler tree.
· Hexagonal (or) Septaple system is based on the “equilateral triangles” his system accommodate about 15% more plants per unit area than the square system. Cultivation is possible in three directions = 2 -R@
· In quincunx X system double the number of plants of square system.
· The perpetuation of plants is called “Propagation”.
· Viviparous seed – Chow – Chow.
· The period of rest during which certain favorable physiological changes occur in seed after harvest to the embryo to germinate is called “After ripening”.
· Seed coats impermeable to water – Clover, alfa alfa.
· Seed coats impermeable to oxygen – Xanthium.
· Stratification – Moist chilling, temperature – 0 – 100C.
· Nucellar embryony – Citrus.
· Polyembryony – Jamun, Mango.
· Graftage – The art of joining two plant parts – roots and stem.
a. Grafting – A piece of stem with more than one bud.
b. Budding – A single bud is used.
· Swollen base of stem – corm. Eg: Colocasia, Banana.
· Shoot suckers – Banana, Pineapple, Suckers – lateral branch that develop.
· Root suckers – Guava, Curryleaf from the underground portion of the stem.
· Seed coats impermeable to water – Clover, alfalfa.
· Stolon – An aerial horizontally growing shoot which on contact with the soil strike roots. Eg: Jasmine, Cynodon dactylon.
· Runner – Strawgerry, Oxalis.
· Offset – Agave, Pineapple, Waterhyacinth.
· Crowns – Pineapple
· Bulbils – Lilium – Acrial stem bulblets.
· Slips – Stem pieces with 3-4 nodes. Eg: Chrysanthemum slips.
· Rootage: In cuttage the roots are induced in the detached portion of plants where as in layer age roots are induced on plants parts when they are intact with the parent plants.
· A layered stem is known as “layer”.
1. Tip layering – Eg: Strawberries.
2. Simple layering – Jasmine
3. Compound layering – Phelodendron – branch is alternately covered and exposed along with its length.
4. Mound layering – Mango, Guava.
· The best season to take cutting is from middle of July to middle of February.
· In graftage the upper part is termed as “Scion” and the lower part is termed as “root stock”. The new plant obtained as a result is called “Stion”.
· The root stock is selected on the basis of the influence on the ‘Scion’.
· The shoots of mother tree from which the buds are used as scion material is known as ‘bud wood’.
· Top working is the practice of grafting on established trees which involves the removal of most of their branch system. To re – juvinate old unproductive tree.
· A scion is grafted over the already grafted shoot. This is known as “Double” working.
Double working is done to temper the influence of the rootstock.
· “Bridge grafting” is a form of repair grafting and is used in cases in which the root system of the tree has not been damaged but where there is injury to the bark of the trunk.
· The influence of root stock is more in magnitude as compared to the influence of scion as stock.
· Precocity: from planting to flowering period – early bearing nature.
· Effect of root stock on the vigour of the scion on precocity on productivity and yield.
· The major influence of the scion on the rootstock is on the vigour of the stock.
· Graft incompatibility Eg: Apple on pear; Sweet orange on wood apple.
1. Trans located incompatability: This due to the movement of toxic materials through phloem. This is can not be overcome even by inserting an intermediate stock.
2. Localised incompatability: This may be due to repulsive action of stock and scion. This can be overcome by inserting an intermediate stock.
· “Training” is a treatment given to the young plants to get a suitable (or) desirable shape and a strong frame work systems of training.
1. Close centered system – Strong crotches.
2. Open centre system – Weak crotches.
3. Modified leader system – practiced in citrus. It is the best system.
In training branches should arise on the main trunk alternately at intervals of at least 15cm.
· Removal of unwanted, surplus annual growth, dead, dried and diseased wood of the plants is “Pruning”.
· Fruits born an current flush. Eg: Ber, phalsa and grapes.
Method of pruning:
1. Thinning out: When a shoot is removed entirely from the jinception.
2. Heading back: When a branch is cut almost to the base, leaving a few inches at stump, carrying few buds, it is referred as “Heading back”.
3. Pollarding – Mere cutting back of the shoots to reduce in the height of the tree is “Pollarding”.
4. Training – Cutting the growth of the twig.
5. Pinching (Tipping) – Removal of the tip of the shoot. This is practiced in marigold and chillies at the time of transplanting.
6. Disbudding – Nipping (or) rubbing.
7. Deblossoming – Removal of surplus flowers practiced in alternate bearers take Mango, Apple etc.
· In deciduous trees pruning can be done before the termination of dormancy.
· In evergreen, pruning should be carried out just before the start of active growth (or) after the harvest of the crops.
· Trees on light soils flower earlier than those on heavy soils.
· An accumulation of carbohydrates is essential for flower formation.
· Bahar treatment is given to produce flowers. This is mainly practiced in citrus (Santra) in Nagpur area.
· Ringing: The bark is removed in the form of a ring from small branches. Ringing is practiced in grape and deciduous fruits in Europe.
· Smudging: Un oxidized hydrocarbons like acetylene and ethylene often induce flower bud formation. Smudging is a practice based on this principle.
· Rumani prefers Himayuddin polles
· Waves of fruit drop
I. wave (post – setting drop) – This drop is natural and beneficial to the plant. It is a necessary evil.
II. Wave (Summer (or) June drop) – due to high temperature shedding (thinning) helps the remaining fruits on the tree of increase in size.
III. Wave (Pre-harvest drop) – Cause heavy losses.
· Late rains may prolong the vegetative growth and delay (or) reduce flowering as in Mango. It can be remedied by drying out the soil by deep ploughing and probably by artificial inhibition of growth by growth inhibitors (Cycocel B9).
· The phenomenon in which an asexual reproduction process occur in place of the normal sexual reproduction – Apomixis.
· A narrow croatch can be widened by pruning the branch to an outer bud.
· Light intensity refers to the concentration of light waves.
· The quality of the light refers to the length of wave.
· For cold storage mature fruits while for waxing ripening and immature fruits are harvested for smoke ripening.
· Colour of seeds is a guide of maturity in pears and in certain apples.
· “Penetrometer” measure firmness as an index of maturity.
· Acidity and as tringency gradually disappear during ripening.
· Aroma and taste together constitutes the favour. The aroma is cause by the formation of ester.
· During the time of ripening the rate of respiration reaches a peak and then decline. This peak is referred as “Climteric”. Eg: Banana, Mango.
· ‘Avocado’ ripen only after harvest and also ‘Panchavarnam’ Mango veriety.
· Ca carbide pellets placed for uniform yellow colour development also causes loss brightness of colour.
· “Ethrel” is the ripening hormone most commonly employed for artificial ripening of fruits.
· Pre cooling is done to make the fruits to acclimatize for the low in cold storage chamber.
· Brown heart: When CO2 increases in the storage atmosphere.
· Hot dry winds at blossoming time prevents “Pollen germination”.
· The fruits of sweet orange are juicy and thin skinned if sour orange is used as a root stock.
· Exposing of fruits to gamma ray – Irradiation.
· Toughening of the skin in citrus fruits for loss susceptibility to injury is called as “Qualiting”.
· The storage malady that occurs when immature fruits are stored in “Browing”.
· In Bryophillum propagation through “leaf cutting”.
· pH for horticultural crop – 6 – 7.
· The plant with slender and succulent stems to support in except position are vines.
Krishna is the leading district in Mango production in Andhra Pradesh.