Botanical pesticides, often known as natural insecticides, are pesticides generated from plants and minerals that have naturally inherent defensive qualities. Because they do not emit poisons as they degrade, these herbicides have grown in popularity. Furthermore, when insects become increasingly resistant to synthetic pesticides, they have shown to be more effective than traditional insecticides.
Botanical pesticides sources
Plant extracts, essential oils, and mixtures were used to make several botanical insecticides. Botanicals are known to be made from certain plants. Ingredients include rhizomes, bark, leaves, nuts, cloves, fruits, and stems. In this case, the use of the plant component would be determined by the bioactive chemicals used and their quantity inside the target cells. Myristicaceae, Rutaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Apiaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Sapotaceae, Cupressaceae, Piperaceae, Solanaceae, and Zingiberaceae are among the plant families that contain botanical insecticides.
Solvents that enhance extraction are used to extract dried and crushed plant components. The potency is distilled, standardised, and evaluated in a laboratory or in the field after the extraction. The neem plant azadirachtin (Azadirachta) and the insect repellant pyrethrum are two further examples of practical and successful natural insecticides (Tanacetum cinerariifolium). Many additional plants, such as garlic (Allium sativum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), ginger (Zingiber officinalis), peppermint (Mentha piperita), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), have pesticide characteristics (Thymus vulgaris)
Botanicals have minimal mammalian toxicity, target selectivity, biodegradability, and numerous active components in low concentrations, making them effective biocide agents against a variety of insect pests and illnesses. In India and other areas of the world, neem is one of the most significant trees with a lot of promise for disease and insect-pest control.
This single tree has the ability to satisfy more than half of the pesticide requirements in agricultural production.
India has about 18 million neem trees, with a seed potential of 4,14,000 tonnes, capable of producing 85,000 tonnes of oil and 3,30,000 tonnes of oil cakes.
More than 200 types of insect pests, nematodes, and more than 50 illnesses have been found to be controlled with neem insecticides.
Triterpenoides, nimbin, and azadirachtin are mostly found in the seeds, leaves, and other sections of the plant, however there are at least 35 physiologically active components in neem.
Factors affect botanical pesticides
- Provision of raw materials.
- Standardization of botanical extracts having a dynamic mix of active components.
- Solvents, plant creatures, and plant components of various types.
- Environmental variables and rapid degradation
- Botanical insecticides have a promising future.
- Registration with the state.
The pesticide’s composition, active ingredient, technique, time, and amounts utilised in pesticide mixes, meteorological circumstances, and the time of year of application are all elements that impact the use of synthetic botanical pesticides.
As a result, an investigation must also consider possible environmental exposure, health indicators, and other aspects of risk assessment such as an individual’s residency and work background, clinical history, and the prevalence of pesticides analysed in drinking water, land, atmosphere, and fresh and processed food in the area in which populations are examined. Exposure can be increased by the length of time spent doing the activity each day, the number of years spent doing it, the kind of exposure, the usage of protective equipment, and their proximity to agricultural fields.
Botanical insecticides made from plants are used in agriculture
This group of plants is vital since botanical pesticides, herbs, and decorative plants may all be found in the environment, and many of them serve many functions such as medicines, meals, accessories, and livestock. They are readily accessible and so inexpensive, making them simple to use into agricultural processes. Commercially available pesticides such as neem, pyrethrum, and numerous other non-target species are the least dangerous to non-target creatures such as insects and fish.
They are beneficial to both humans and the environment. The link between pest-control agents generated from plants and pests is based on a biochemical mechanism, which reduces the chance of resistance. The derivative focus of essential oils and essential extracts is on target-specific properties, which helps protect bees and other non-target beneficial species from a plant-based risk.
On botanical crops, it has no or just a little allelopathic effect. Its efficacy is determined by the plant species, whether the extract is used dry or wet, the concentration of the solution, and the extraction procedure. To suit the needs of a range of pests, they have a number of mechanisms of action, including insect resistance, population reduction, toxicity, and crop modification. Behavioral activity, metabolic processes, anatomy, biochemical activities, and specific physiological functions all interact with them.