Classification of Agriculture Crops for Competitive Examination

Agriculture Crops

According to Special Purpose

1. Arable crops:

Crops which are cultivated on ploughed land. They are annual crops and include cereals, root crops, tobacco, sugarcane, maize and potatoes.

2.Aromatic crops
The crop plants contain odoriferous and volatile substances, which occur as essential oils, gum exudates, balsam and oleoresin in one or more part of plant,

viz. wood, bark, foliage, flower and fruit are called Aromatic plants.

3.AIley Crops 

Alley crops or hedge-row intercrops is grove under an agroforestry practice in which perennial, preferably leguminous trees or shrubs are grown simultaneously with arable crop.

The trees, managed as hedgerows, are grown in wide rows and the crop is planted in the interspace or ‘alley’ between the tree rows

e.g. Sweet potato, Black gram, Turmeric & Ginger grown in the passages formed by the rows of Eucalyptus, Subabul and Cassia etc.

4.Augment Crops

Such crops are grown to supplement the yield of the main crops, e.g. Japanese mustard with berseem.

5.Avenue Crops 
Such crops are grown along farm roads and fences. e.g. Pigeon pea, Glyricidia sisal etc.

6. Border Guard Crops 
Such crops protect another crops from trespassing of animals or restrict the speed of wind and are mainly grown as border. e g. safflower (thorny oilseed crop) is planted around the field of gram.

7.Cash Crops
A crop, such as tobacco, grown for direct sale rather than for livestock feed or a crop grown by a farmer primarily for sale to others rather than for his or her own use. e. g. sugarcane, cotton, jute, tobacco etc.

8.Catch Crops
Such crops are cultivated to catch the forthcoming season when main crop is failed. e.g. Linseed, toria, urd, moong cowpea etc.

9.Contour Crops
Crops are grown on or along the contour line to protect the land from soil erosion. e.g. marvel grass etc.

10.Cover Crops
A close-growing crop grown primarily to improve and protect the soil from erosion through their ground covering foliage and root mats between periods of regular crop production. e.g. Lobia, groundnut, urd, sweet potato, methi etc.

11.Complementary Crops

Both main and intercrop is benefited to each other. e.g. Jowar + Lobia.

12.Competitive Crops

Such crops compete to each other and are unsuitable for intercropping. e.g. two cereals.

13.Exhaustive Crops
These crops leave the field exhaustive after growing. e.g. Cereals (Rice)

14.Energy Crops
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low cost and low maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, or directly exploited for its energy content. e.g. sugarcane, potato, maize, topioca.

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