Crop Productivity Important Features

Crop Productivity feature

Crop Productivity Features


• Rice covers about 23% of gross cropped area.

Climatic Conditions– Rainfall more than 125 cm., clayey loam is best, tolerate acidic as well as alkali soil, average monthly temperature should not fall below 21°C as in Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam & South India.

Area– Coastal India (south of Bombay in the western coast), eastern India, Chattisgarh plain, Wainganga valley, alluvial plain of West Bengal, Mahanadi Delta, eastern Assam valley, Cauvery delta.

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• Climatic Condition- Cool climate, 30 cm. rainfall during growing period, clayey alluvial is best suitable, raised mainly in area of rainfall annually less than 100cm.

• India is not ideally suited for wheat cultivation due to short & relatively warm and dry winter season. In Punjab best favourable climate exists. It requires 5 to 5 ½ months to ripen but in south the growing period is shorter.


• Climatic conditions for its growth are the same as for wheat. However, it can well thrive even in more cooler climate so its potential area is much wider. But its yield is not as of wheat so its percentage contribution in total food grain production is not much.

• It is useful for production of malt which again is used for brewing beer and other alcoholic products.

(Crop Productivity Features)


Climatic Condition– area of 4 ½ months free from frost, temperature during growing period 21°- 27°C, but should not fall below 13°C, rainfall – 50-100 cm, well drained loamy soil rich in N2, grown as kharif crop in all the States,

Area– mainly north of a line connecting Surat with Calcutta (excluding Kutch, West Rajasthan and Ladakh), in the North East (Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram), northern districts of Andhra and adjoining districts of Maharashtra & Bastar (M.P.).


Climatic Condition – Rainfall below 100 cm, needs 30 cm rain during growing season, mean monthly temperature – 20°C-33°C, clayey deep regur and alluvium for better yield. • Area – On Indian Plateau west of 80°E meridian; in Maharashtra Plateau region it is the most important cereal, south of Pune 80% agriculturable land under it; in Andhra, Maharashtra, Karnataka as Rabi and as Kharif elsewhere.

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Kharif crop– Arhar/Tur, Moong, Urad, Moth, etc. throughout India.

Rabi crop– Gram, Peas, Khesari, Masur, Urad, etc. in North India.

• Pulses occupies 13% of total Indian cropped area while 90% area under it is rainfed.

• Gram, Peas & Arhar together occupies about 50% of area under all pulses.

• Kharif pulses are grown more in T.N., Gujarat, Maharashtra and Punjab.

• Rabi pulses are grown mainly in MP, UP, Haryana and West Bengal.


India is the leading producer (1/3 of total world production) and area-wise first in world.

Climatic Conditions– Highly susceptible to frost so not grown in winter season in north of Tropic of Cancer, well drained sandy loam is more suitable, eastern limit in Deccan Plateau is 100 cm Isohyet.

Area– raised as “kharif” throughout India but as “Rabi” in T.N., Karnataka, Andhra, Orissa; leading producers are Deccan Plateau & Gujarat state; Kharif crop is 90-95% of total area.

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Rapeseed and Mustard

• Area-wise India ranks 2nd in world.

• Climate- Like wheat and gram they thrive only in cool climate and frost damages it; grown as Rabi crop.

• UP & Rajasthan are the chief producer and together accounts 60% of the country production.


• Accounts for 1/3 of world production & areawise first in world.

• Climate – Raised throughout India; as Kharif in North India and as Rabi in South India, average monthly temperature – 21°C.


• India accounts 10% of world production & area wise stands first in world. • Grown in winter as Rabi crop north of 16° N.

• Production areas MP, UP, Maharastra, Bihar, Rajasthan.

Castor seed

• India contributes 20% world production & area wise first in world.

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• Climate- generally raised as a mixed crop in tropical & sub-tropical climate; rainfall – 5075cm.; light soil; in India all area under castorseed is rainfed.

• Raised as Kharif in North India where winters are cool and as Rabi in South India.

Niger Seed

• Area-wise first in world; used for making soap.

• Area- Orissa, M.P., Bihar, Maharashtra.

Sun flower

• Area – wise first in the world; raised as Rabi crop.

• Area – Maharashtra alone contributes 75% of total production.

Cotton Seed

• Used in chemical industries and as lubricant.

(Crop Productivity Features)

• Area – Gujarat (25%), Maharashtra (17%), Punjab (15%), Karnataka (9%), Andhra (11%) Haryana (7%), T.N. (8%)


• India contributes 10% of world production.

• Climatic Condition- A sub-tropical crop; temperature – above 21° C & 200 frost free days; rainfall – 75c.m. during growing season (grown mainly in area of 50-100 c.m. rainfall); soil- regur in rain-fed area & heavy alluvial in irrigated area.

• Area- mainly in area west of 80°E (excluding arid West Rajasthan West Punjab & Haryana, Ganganagar (Rajasthan), South – West UP, South East – Rajasthan, black cotton soil of Malwa plateau Bihar, Nagpur plain, Kathiawar & Gujarat plain, Northern-Karnataka & neighbouring Andhra and Maharashtra, Western T.N.

• Almost whole of the cotton is picked by the end of December, before winter frost.

• 16% of total area under cotton is irrigated. More than 90% of cotton land of Punjab, Haryana and U.P. are irrigated. Yield is high in rain-fed areas as well as irrigated areas. Plateau of peninsular India is a rain-fed area so low yield without irrigation.

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• India ranks 1st in both area and production, however, Bangladesh stands 1st in export.

• Climatic condition- rainfall between 150-300 cm, humidity over 80% , temperature between 24°C & 35°C during growing period, preferred to land subjected to annual flooding, plenty of water is required for cultivation of this crop and for processing it after the harvesting, it occupies the field for 3½ months.

• Area- Sown in March and May in lower Brahmaputra valley, West Bengal Plain, Mahanadi Delta & NE- Bihar. Mesta is produced in Andhra, Maharashtra, Orissa, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, MP, T.N. and NE States.


• India is the 3rd largest producer with 2nd largest growing area, and stands 5th in Flavoueed Virginia tobacco production.

(Crop Productivity Features)

• Climatic Conditions – In tropical and sub- tropical area with rainfall about 60 cm. during growing period, 80% humidity is most suitable, well drained sandy loam rich in potash is most favourable.

• Area- Production is concentrated in the Ganga basin of N. Bihar, Godavari & Krishna delta of Andhra, Madurai, Belgaum, Baroda, Satara and Kaira near Mumbai.

• In production Gujarat ranks first followed by A.P., U.P., Karnataka and Bihar.


• India has the largest area in sugarcane production in the world and also leads in production.

• Climatic Conditions- Temperature – 25°C, hot dry wind is inimical, annual rainfall from 75 to 100 cm plus limited irrigation, well drained raddish loamy soil rich in N2, Ca and Phosphorus are essential for good yield, cool dry climate during the maturing period promotes the sucrose content, occupies the field for 10 to 12 month.

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• Area- South India has advantage in sugarcane as it reflects the best suited tropical conditions and a longer period of crushing almost twice over the north.

• North India produces the sugarcane in sub-tropical condition. Main area in Ganga plain west of the longitude of Patna and to the north of Yamuna contributing 50% of the total cane production in India.

• Cost of manufacturing sugar in India is high mainly due to low yield and short crushing period as in N-Indian plain. Its cultivation in S. India is confined to those area where irrigation is available. In Andhra, T.N., Karnataka, and Maharashtra 100% of the area under sugarcane is irrigated.

• North India produces 70% of the total production.


• India accounts about 30% of global output followed by China (21.5%), Sri Lanka (9.5%) and Kenya (8%). However, Sri Lanka has overtaken India in terms of volume of export but in value term of export India is ahead.

• South India’s productivity is highest in the world specially in Nilgiri of T.N.

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• Climatic Conditions- Hot climate with tempetature 21°C-32°C, rainfall more than 150 cm. Most suited soil is deep loamy rich in humus, virgin forest soil with very little calcium but enough of iron are best suited to tea.

• Area- NE- India contributes about 80% of the total country production while the south India contributes 20% of India’s total output.

a) Assam- On flat and alluvial lands on either side of Brahmputra river and in the region south of Assam hills like in Cachar. These tea have poor flavour but good liquor.

b) W.Bengal- In Darjeeling (3000-4000 ft hight) and Jalpaiguri. Darjeeling tea has good flavour and so fetches high price.

c) South India- Annamalai Hills; Hassan & Chikmangalur districts of Karnataka, Kottayam, Quilon & Trivandrum districts of Kerala. All these production areas are situated at the elevation of 760 to 1520 meter above the sea level.

d) Dehradoon district of UP & Dharmasala in Kangra districts of Himachal Pradesh also produces some amount of tea.

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e) Kolkata and Cochin – Chief tea exporting port. However the tea export from India faces the problems of over supply in the world market, increased cost of production and increasing competition from Sri Lanka and East African countries. The new comers in the field of export like Africa, Argentina and other traditional exporting countries like Taiwan, Japan and Sri Lanka are gradually replacing Indian tea in the world market.


• The first plantation in India was started on the Malawar coasts. English planters commenced coffee planting industry with large estates near Chikmangalur in 1826.

• India contributes 4% of total world production of which 70% is reserved for export.

• Arabica & Robusta are the two main varietes of coffee grown in India accounting for 49% and 51% of area under cultivation respectively.

• Area- Coffee is largely grown on the eastern sheltered slopes of Western Ghats near 15°N latitude in Kerala, Karnataka and T.N.

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• Since the ancient time, India has been holding an important position in production and export of various types of spices. In India about 60 kinds of spices are grown though the most important species are – Chillies, Cardomom, Black-Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Large cardamom, Cumin, Coriander, Fenu-greek, Garlic, Saffron, Celery, etc.

• About 95% of total production is consumed in the domestic market.

• Indian share in trade of spices is of about 27% in volume and 9% in terms of value and earns substantial amount of foreign exchange.

• Indian spices export in value terms – Black pepper >Chilli Turmeric > Coriander> Ginger > Cardamom.

Chillies : A.P, T.N, Mahrashtra, Karnataka.

Turmeric : Eastern coast specially Andhra, Orissa, T.N.

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Cordamom : India is the largest producer and exporter of cardamom. Idukki district of Kerela has the highest concentration and Kerela is also largest producer.

• Area wise Kerala stands first followed by Karnataka and T.N.

• Production wise Kerala also is on the top followed by Karnataka and T.N.

Black-pepper : India is the second largest producer after Indonesia.

• Kerala is the largest producer followed by Karnataka, T.N. and Andaman.

Ginger : Kerala is the most important producer (70%). Other procucing States are H.P., M.P., Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan & W. Bengal.

Arecanut : Meghalaya stands first in the production followed by Orissa, Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, Maharashtra and T.N.

• India produces 75% of world turmeric and 65% world ginger.

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