Different Types Of Soils in India and Their Properties

Soils in India

Alluvial Soils

1. Widespread in the northern plains and the river valleys

2. 40 percent of the total area of the country

3. Depositional soils

4. Transported and deposited by rivers and streams

5. Transported and deposited by rivers and streams

6. Peninsular region, they are found in deltas of the east coast and in the river valleys

7. Vary in nature from sandy loam to clay

8. Rich in potash but poor in phosphorus

9. Upper and Middle Ganga plain, two different types of alluvial soils have developed

2)Black Soil

1. Includes parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Tamil Nadu.

2. Western part of the Deccan Plateau

3. And the north western part of the Deccan Plateau.

4. Western part of the Deccan Plateau.

5. Also known as the ‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil.

6. Generally clayey, deep and impermeable.

7. Generally clayey, deep and impermeable.

8. There occurs a kind of ‘self-ploughing’

9. The black soil retains the moisture for a very long time

10. Helps the crops, especially, the rain fed ones, to sustain even during the dry season

11. Chemically, the black soils are rich in lime and also contain potash

12. Lack in phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter.

13. Soil ranges from deep black to grey

3)Red and Yellow Soil

1. Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern part of the Deccan Plateau

2. Along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghat, long stretch of area is occupied by red loamy soil

3. Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Orissa and Chhattisgarh and in the southern parts of the middle Ganga plain

4. Develops a reddish colour due to a wide diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks

5. Fine-grained red and yellow soils are normally fertile

6. Coarse-grained soils found in dry upland areas are poor in fertility

7. Generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorous and humus.

4)Laterite Soil

1. Derived from the Latin word ‘Later ‘which means brick

2. Develop in areas with high temperature and high rainfall

3. Result of intense leaching due to tropical rains

4. With rain, lime and silica are leached away, and soils rich in iron oxide and aluminium compound are left behind

5. Humus content of the soil is removed fast by bacteria that thrives well in high temperature.

6. While iron oxide and potash are in excess

7. Not suitable for cultivation

8. Application of manures and fertilisers are required for making the soils fertile for cultivation

9. Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for tree crops like cashew nut

10. Laterite soils are widely cut as bricks for use in house construction

11. Mainly developed in the higher areas of the peninsular plateau

12. Commonly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.


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