Different Uses of grapes for Competitive Exam

Grapes are used for

(1) Table purpose
  • Table grapes are meant for use as fresh fruit consumption.
  • These grapes are attractive in appearance and eating quality and with good shipping and keeping qualities.
  • Most of the varieties grown in India are table fruits.
  • The important table grape varieties are Muscat Humburg, Cardinal, Perlette, Thompson seedless (Sultanina), Tokay, Concord, anab-e-shahi, pusa seedless, Delware, Catawba, Ohanez, Red Malaga, Emperor, Italia, Muscat of Alexandria, etc.
(2) Raisin making
  • These are th grapes intended for making dried grapes.
  • The raisin variety of grapes should have soft texture, selflessness with good sugar content, marked pleasing flavour, large or very small size; and little tendency to become sticky in storage.
  • The varieties most extensively used in the commercial production of raisin include Thompson seedless (Sultania, Oal Kishmish), Seedless sultana, Red Corinth, Cape Currant and Black Monukha.
(3) Juice making
  • The varieties of sweet juice grapes produce juice of acceptable beverage.
  • The juice should retain the natural fresh grape flavour throughout clarification and preservation.
  • In United States of America the Concord grapes are in general for Juice.
  • The varieties White Riesling and chasslas dore are used for juice in the central Europe.
  • The varieties Aramonand Carignan are utilized for sweet juice in France.
(4) Wine making and canning
  • Most of the vineyards in Europe, North Africa, South Africa, and South America, Australia and United States of America produce wine grapes.
  • Wines are classified as table wines and desert wines.
  • Table wines contain less than 14 per cent alcohol while the desert wines have more than 14 per cent alcohol, usually 17 to 20 per cent sugar acid ratio, total acidity and tannin content etc., will determine the wine quality.
  • The varieties such as White Rieslin, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tinta Maderi and Muscat Blanc (Muscat canelli) produce wines of high quality, outstanding in bouquet, flavour and general balance (Winker, et al. 1974).
(5) Canning Grapes
  • Seedless varieties like Thompson Seedless and canner are generally canned in combination with other fruits. The varieties grown in Tamil Nadu belong to ‘table’ grapes. Pachadraksha, Muscat (“Panneer”), Anab-e-shahi & Bangalore Blue are the main varieties
  • The genus vitis is sub-divided into two sub-Genera, Muscadinia and Euvitis. The Muscadina have 40 chromosomes while that of Euvitis have 38.
  • Vitis vinifera is the most popular species of grapes grown in the world. Venifera grapes have forked tendrils and shiny leaves.
  • Vitiis riparia, rupestries, berlandieri, candicans, rufotomentosa and solanis are popular rootstocks for phylloxera and nematode resistance.

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