Drought Alleviating Methods for Irrigated Dry (ID) Crops

Dry Crops

In ID crops, the main objective is to irrigate the crops to meet the requirement of ET need of the crops. Normally the ID crops are irrigated at certain intervals and mostly they are cultivated where conjunctive use of well water is available.

So, chances for acute drought are very common on complete failure of monsoon. In this situation, adopting irrigation at critical stages save the crops from yield loss. Further, some drought alleviating chemical spray also protects the crops from severe loss.

1. Contingent plan for sugarcane

• Deep planting of sets in 30 cm deep and 30 cm wide trenches.

• Adopting irrigation at 0.75 and 0.5 IW/CPE ratio during tillering to grand growth and maturity phase, respectively i.e., 8 to 9 days interval during tillering to grand growth and 13 to 15 days interval at maturity phase.

• Trash mulching to a thickness of 10 cm uniformly 3 days after planting to tide over drought by moisture conservation and to reduce weed incidence.

• Application of 2 to 3 per cent kaolin spray to mitigate the water loss through transpiration.

• Alternate furrow irrigation: Irrigate alternate furrows in rotation for each irrigation.

• Cultivating drought resistant varieties such as COC 85061, COC 8001, COC 671.

2. Contingent plan for groundnut

• Regulate water based on growth stages like pegging, flowering and pod development.

• Adopt the following schedule a.Sowing or pre-sowing irrigation b.Life irrigation 4-5 days after sowing

a) Irrigate 20 days after sowing

b) At flowering give two irrigations at pegging give one or two irrigations

c) At pod development give 2 to 3 irrigations

• Spray 0.5% potassium chloride during flowering and pod development stage to mitigate the ill effect of water stress.

• Adopt sprinkler irrigation method wherever possible.

3. Contingent plan for cotton

The following irrigation schedule can be adopted to overcome water stress.

• Irrigate immediately after sowing.

• Give life irrigation on 5th day of sowing.

• Irrigate on 20th and 35th day at vegetative phase.

• Irrigate copiously at 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 days after sowing which coincide with flowering and boll formation stages.

• Control irrigation during maturity phase from 100 to 150 days after sowing.

• Stop irrigation after 150th day.

• Adopt alternate furrow irrigation.

• Adopt drip irrigation method wherever possible.

4. Other management techniques

• Summer ploughing has to be done in large scale which is not only a water conservation method but also checks weed growth, facilitate easy puddling etc.

• Strengthening of field bunds to minimize the water loss through leakages and to impound rainwater to increase the infiltration and soil moisture storage.

• Adoption of drip or sprinkler irrigation methods wherever it is possible.

• Proper on-farm development works to reduce the water loss and in turn to increase the water application efficiency.

• Turn and rotational system of water supply can be introduced.

• Community system of nursery and mass mechanical ploughing can reduce water wastage.

• Introducing new cropping pattern for effective utilization of available water.

• Adoption of watershed method and in situ water conservation methods for efficient crop production.

• Farmers organization and participation appraisal are important extension activities which make the farmers to realize the value of water.

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