Emasculation and it’s different Types

Emasculation

EMASCULATION

Emasculation is the removal of stamens, anthers, or pollen grains from a bisexual flower prior to dehiscence without damaging the gynoecium. To avoid self-pollination, the male inflorescence is removed from monoecious plants like maize. The male plants in dioecious crops, such as papaya, are eliminated.

TYPES OF EMASCULATION

Hand Emasculation

One day before anthesis, hand emasculation is often done between 4 and 6 o’clock. With the aid of forceps and needles, the corolla of the chosen flower bud is opened, and the anthers are painstakingly extracted. The corolla may be totally eliminated in plants with epipetalous stamens (stamen connected to the corolla), such as sesamum. Emasculation must not cause damage to the gynoecium.

Hot water emasculation

In order to emasculate pollen grains, treatments with alcohol, cold water, and hot water are utilized since, in comparison to female reproductive organs, pollen grains are extremely sensitive to both genetic and environmental variables. Depending on the crop, hot water temperature and treatment time vary. For emasculation, for instance, sorghum needs a temperature of 42–48°C for ten minutes while rice needs a temperature of 40–440°C for ten minutes. A thermos flask is often used to transport hot water.

Alcohol treatment

It is not frequently employed since, in some circumstances, the female reproductive system is also severely impacted. This technique involves soaking the flower bud or inflorescence in alcohol for a certain amount of time, followed by a water rinse. For instance, treating sweet clover and Lucerne for 10 seconds with 57 percent alcohol was quite successful.

Cold treatment

Compared to hot water treatment, cold treatment is less efficient. For instance, when rice is treated with cold water at 0.6 °C, the pollen grains are destroyed without harming the gynoecium. For wheat, a temperature of 0.2 °C for 15–24 hours is necessary.

Genetic emasculation

Genetic emasculation refers to the process of emasculation that uses cytoplasmic or genetic male sterility. Genetic emasculation is frequently utilized in crops including wheat, sorghum, pearl millet, onion, and sorghum. Pollen formation is impeded or, even if it does develop, will be sterile and unable to fertilize in genetic emasculation. Emasculation is not required in the case of self-incompatible crops, such as Brassica, because self-fertilization is inefficient. Emasculation is not necessary in some crops with protogyny mechanisms (stigma grows earlier than anthers) to create hybrid seeds.

 

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