A. Shifting Cultivation
A primitive form of agriculture in which people working with the crudest of tools, cut down a part of the forest, burnt the underneath growth and started new garden sites. After few years, when these plots lost their fertility or became heavily infested with weeds or soil-borne pests, they shifted to a new site. This is also known as Assartage system(cultivating crops till the land is completely worn-out) contrary to the fallow system.
Fallow system means land is allowed for a resting period without any crop. In India, shifting cultivation existed in different states, with different names as jhum cultivation in Assam, podu in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, kumari in Western Ghats, walra in south east Rajasthan, penda bewar in Madhya Pradesh and slash and burn in Bihar.
B. Subsidiary Farming
Rudimentary system of settled farming, which includes cultivation, gathering and hunting. People in groups started settling down near a stream or river as permanent village sites and started cultivating in the same land more continuously, however the tools, crops and cropping methods were primitive.
C. Subsistence Farming
Advanced form of primitive agriculture i.e., agriculture is considered as a way of life based on the principle of “Grow it and eat it” instead of growing crops on a commercial basis. Hence, it is referred as raising the crops only for family needs.
D. Mixed Farming
It is the farming comprising of crop and animal components. Field crop-grass husbandry (same field was used both for cropping and later grazing) was common. It is a stage changing from food gathering to food growing.
E. Advanced Farming
Advanced farming practices includes selection of crops and varieties, seed selection, green manuring with legumes, crop rotation, use of animal and crop refuse as manures, irrigation, pasture management, rearing of milch animals, bullocks, sheep and goat for wool and meat, rearing of birds by stall feeding etc.
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