Fermented beverages :
Fermented beverages are complex solutions of thousands of chemical compounds originating from the fruit itself, from the fermentation process, from the yeast and other microbial metabolism during fermentation, and from post fermentation steps (including secondary fermentations and chemical reactions during aging).Fermented Beverages Fruit juices which have undergone alcoholic fermentation by yeasts include wine, champaigne, port, sherry, tokay, muscat, perry, orange wine, berry wine, nira and cider.
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2. JAM, JELLY, MARMALADE
Jam is a product made by boiling fruit pulp with sufficient amount of sugar to a reasonably thick consistency, firm enough to hold the fruit tissues in position. Apple, pear, sapota (chiku), peach, papaya, karonda, carrot, plum, straw-berry, raspberry, mango, tomato, grapes and muskmelon are used for preparation of jams. It can be prepared from one kind of fruit or from two or more kinds.(Fermented beverages)
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- A jelly is a semi-solid product prepared by boiling a clear, strained solution of pectin containing fruit extract, free from pulp, after the addition of sugar and acid. A perfect jelly should be transparent, well-set, but not too stiff, and should have the original flavour of the fruit. It should be of attractive colour and keep its shape when removed from the mould. It should be firm enough to retain a sharp edge but tender enough to quiver when pressed. (Fermented beverages)
- Guava, sour apple, plum, karonda, wood apple, loquat, papaya and goose-berry are generally used for preparation of jelly. Apricot, pineapple, strawberry, raspberry, etc. can be used but only after addition of pectin powder, because these fruits have low pectin content.
This is a fruit jelly in which slices of the fruit or its peel are suspended. (Fermented beverages)The term is generally used for products made from citrus fruits like oranges and lemons in which shredded peel is used as the suspended material. Citrus marmalades are classified into
(i) jelly marmalade, and
(ii) jam marmalade.
The following combinations give good quality of jelly marmalade:
i. Sweet orange (Malta) and khatta or sour orange (Citrus aurantium) in the ratio of 2:1 by weight. Shreds of Malta orange peel are used.
ii. Mandarin orange and khatta in the ratio of 2:1 by weight. Shreds of Malta orange peel are used.
iii. Sweet orange (Malta) and galgal (Citrus limonia) in the ratio of 2:1 by weight. Shreds of Malta orange peel are used.
The method of preparation is practically the same as that for jelly marmalade. In this case the pectin extract of fruit is not clarified and the whole pulp is used. Sugar is added according to the weight of fruit, generally in the proportion of 1:1. The pulp-sugar mixture is cooked till the TSS content reaches 65 per cent.(Fermented beverages)
A whole fruit / vegetable or its pieces impregnated with cane sugar or glucose syrup, and subsequently drained free of syrup and dried, is known as candied fruit / vegetable. The most suitable fruits for candying are aonla, karonda, pineapple, cherry, papaya, apple, peach, and peels of orange, lemon, grapefruit and citron, ginger, etc. The process for making candied fruit is practically similar to that for preserves.(Fermented beverages)
The only difference is that the fruit is impregnated with syrup having a higher percentage of sugar or glucose. A certain amount (25-30 per cent) of invert sugar or glucose, viz., confectioners glucose (corn syrup, crystal syrup or commercial glucose), dextrose or invert sugar is substituted for cane sugar. The total sugar content of the impregnated fruit is kept at about 75 per cent to prevent fermentation. The syrup left over from the candying process can be used for candying another batch of the same kind of fruit after suitable dilution for sweetening chutneys, sauces and pickles and in vinegar making.
Covering of candied fruits / vegetables with a thin transparent coating of sugar, which imparts them a glossy appearance, is known as glazing. Cane sugar and water (2:1 by weight) are boiled in a steam pan at 113-114°C and the scum is removed as it comes up. Thereafter the syrup is cooled to 93°C and rubbed with a wooden ladle on the side of the pan when granulated sugar is obtained. Dried candied fruits are passed through this granulated portion of the sugar solution, one by one, by means of a fork, and then placed on trays in a warm dry room. They may also be dried in a drier at 49°C for 2-3 hours. When they become crisp, they are packed in airtight containers for storage.(Fermented beverages)
Candied fruits/ vegetables when covered or coated with crystals of sugar, either by rolling in finely powdered sugar or by allowing sugar crystals to deposit on them from a dense syrup are called crystallized fruits. The candied fruits are placed on a wire mesh tray which is placed in a deep vessel. Cooled syrup (70 per cent total soluble solids) is gently poured over the fruit so as to cover it entirely. The whole mass is left undisturbed for 12 to 18 hours during which a thin coating of crystallized sugar is formed. The tray is then taken out carefully from the vessel and the surplus syrup drained off. The fruits are then placed in a single layer on wire mesh trays and dried at room temperature or at about 49°C in driers.(Fermented beverages)
Non-Fermented beverages: ―Fruit juices which do not undergo alcoholic fermentation are termed as non fermented beverages. They include natural and sweetened juices, RTS, nectar, cordial, squash, crush, syrup, fruit juice concentrate and fruit juice powder.”
I. FRUIT BEVERAGE
This is a type of fruit beverage containing at least 25 per cent fruit juice or pulp and 40 to 50 per cent total soluble solids, commercially. It also contains about 1.0per cent acid and 350 ppm sulphur dioxide or 600 ppm sodium benzoate. It is diluted before serving. Mango, orange and pineapple are used for making squash commercially. It can also be prepared from lemon, bael, papaya, etc. using potassium metabisulphite (KMS) as preservative or from jamun, passion-fruit, peach, plum, raspberry, strawberry, grapefruit, etc. with sodium benzoate as preservative.(Non-Fermented beverages)
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B. READY-TO-SERVE (RTS)
This is a type of fruit beverage which contains at least 10 per cent fruit juice and 10 per cent total soluble solids besides about 0.3 per cent acid. It is not diluted before serving, hence it is known as ready-to-serve (RTS).
This type of fruit beverage contains at least 20 per cent fruit juice / pulp and 15 per cent total soluble solids and also about 0.3 per cent acid. It is not diluted before serving.(Non-Fermented beverages)
For preparing the above beverages, the total soluble solids and total acid present in the pulp/juice are first determined and then the requisite amounts of sugar and citric acid dissolved in water are added for adjustment of TSS and acidity.
C. CORDIAL(Non-Fermented beverages)
It is a sparkling, clear, sweetened fruit juice from which pulp and other insoluble substances have been completely removed. It contains at least 25 per cent juice and 30 per cent TSS. It also contains about 1.5 per cent acid and 350 ppm of sulphur dioxide. This is very suitable for blending with wines. Lime and lemon are suitable for making cordial.
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