Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically Modified Crops

The crops in which one or many of its traits are altered or enhanced through a process of genetic engineering known as GM crops i.e. Bt. Cotton developed against cotton boll worms.

• Bacillus thuringensis is a soil bacterium that produces proteins lethal to insect larvae affecting the digestive system of boll worms.

• The gene responsible for this effect is Cry-lAc.

• GM cotton is only crop permitted by Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) under Ministry of Environment and Forestry first permitted on March, 2002.

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• Bt. Cotton varieties developed by Mahyco: MECH-12, MECH-162, MFCH-184 for Southern States and RCH-134, RCH-138 suitable for Northern India.

• Mahyco collaborated with Monsanto to developed Bt. Variety Bollgourd-1, using Cry -I Ac gene.

• Recently Bt. Variety developed as Bollgourd-ll, having both genes of Cry I Ac and Cry 2 Ab gene.

• First transgenic crop was: Bt. Tobacco (1987)

• Country having first position for transgenic plants is:USA

• Rank of India for transgenic plants is: Fourth

• The position of transgenic plants in world (in area): Soyabean (> 60 %) > Maize > Cotton > Canola.

• Mostly GM traits are used as herbicides resistant traits followed by quality improvements and insecticides resistant traits.

Genetically modified mustard: (Genetically Modified Crops)

• These are glyphosate resistance mustard developed by Pro- . Agro Seed Company Ltd. (an ancillary Company of Bayer ; Crop Science, Germany).

Project on Indian mustard oil with higher B -carotene is initiated by: TERI (Tata Energy Research Institute).

• Varieties developed of Brassica juncea at “{ER! unnat and TERI-uttam.}

Golden Rice: (Genetically Modified Crops)

• It is genetically modified rice.

• Having a -carotene (precursor of Vit-A) rich rice.

 Super Rice:

• Developed by Dr. Gurdev Singh Khush at IRRI, which would bring an improvement of 25% of over present day varieties.

Hybrid Rice: (Genetically Modified Crops)

• Is’ time in World developed in China in 1974 by Prof. Long Ping Yuan, hence known as ‘Father of Hybrid Rice’.

• India is second to developed hybrid after China i.e. MGR1(earlier named as CoRH-1) developed first by TNAU, Coimbatore and PRH-1 & P14II-6 developed by JAR!.

Hybrid Mustard: (Genetically Modified Crops)

• Developed by DRMR (Directorate of Rapeseed and Mustard Research), Bharatpur (Rajasthan)

• Varieties developed by DRMR are: NRC-HB-506 (first hybrid mustard in India).

• Other is: NRC-HB-1 

Super Wheat:(Genetically Modified Crops)

• The research on super wheat is in progress at DWR, Karnal

• It was expected to come by 2005, yield increase 15-20 per cent.

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