Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Origin: Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)is believed to be the native of Brazil to Peru, Argentina and Ghana, from where it was introduced into Jamaica, Cuba and other West Indies islands. (Groundnut Cultivation)
CLIMATE AND SOIL Required For Groundnut Cultivation
Groundnut is grown throughout the tropics and its cultivation is extended to the subtropical contries lying between 45 degrees N and 35 degrees S and upto an altitude of 1000 metres. The crop can be grown successfully in places receiving a minimum rainfall of 1,250 mm. The rainfall should be well distributed well during the flowering and pegging of the crop.The total amount required for presowing operations (preparatory cultivation) is 100 mm; for sowing, it is 150 mm and for flowering and pod development an evenly distributed rainfall of 400-500 mm is required. The groundnut crop, however, cannot stand frost, long and severe draught or water stagnation.
Groundnut is grown on wide variety of soil types. However, the crop does best on sandy loam and loamy soils and in the black soils with good drainage. Heavy and stiff clays are unsuitable for groundnut cultivation as the pod development is hampered in these soils.
FIELD PREPARATION For Groundnut Cultivation
- Plough with tractor using a disc followed by harrow, once or twice with iron plough or 3 – 4 times with country plough till all the clods are broken and a fine tilth is obtained.
- Chiselling for soils with hard pan: Chisel the soils having hard pan formation at shallow depth with chisel plough first at 0.5 m interval in one direction and then in the direction perpendicular to the previous one, once in three years. Apply 12.5 t/ha FYM or composted coir pith besides chiseling.
- Amendments for soil surface crusting: a) to tide over the surface crusting, apply lime @ 2 t/ha along with FYM or composted coir pith @ 12.5 t/ha. b) When coir pith at 12.5 t/ha is converted into compost by inoculating with Pleurotus and applied, it serves as a good source of nutrient.
7. SEED RATE For Groundnut Cultivation
Use 125 kg/ha of kernels. Increase the seed rate by 15% in the case of bold seeded varieties.
8. SPACING For Groundnut Cultivation
Adopt a spacing of 30 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants. Wherever groundnut ring mosaic (bud necrosis) is prevalent, adopt a spacing of 15cm x 15 cm.
9. SEED TREATMENT For Groundnut Cultivation
- Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Biocontrol agents are compatible with biofertilizers. First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium. Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.
- Treatment with Trichoderma can be done just before sowing. SUCH SEEDS SHOULD NOT BE TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES. (or)
- Treat the seeds with Thiram or Mancozeb @ 4 g/kg of seed or Carboxin or Carbendazim at 2 g/kg of seed.
- Treat the seeds with 3 packets (600 g)/ha of Rhizobial culture TNAU14 developed at TNAU using rice kanji as binder. If the seed treatment is not carried out, apply 10 packets/ha (2000 g) with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing. Seed treatment will protect the young seedlings from root-rot and collar rot infection.
10. SOWING In Groundnut Cultivation
- Dibble the seeds at 4 cm depth along with fertilizer.
11. WEED MANAGEMENT In Groundnut Cultivation
- Pre-sowing: Fluchloralin at 2.0 l/ha soil applied and incorporatede followed by light irrigation.
- Pre-emergence: Fluchloralin 2.0 l/ha or Pendimethalin @ 3.3l/ha applied on third day after sowing through flat fan nozzle with 500 l of water/ha followed by irrigation. After 35 – 40 days one hand weeding may be given.
- Spray Imazethapyr @ 750 ml/ha at 20-30 days after sowing based on weed density as post emergence spray
- If no herbicide is applied two hand hoeing and weeding are given on 20th and 40th day after sowing.
- Apply, PE Oxyfluorfen @ 200 g/ha on 3rd DAS and followed by one hand weeding on 40-45 DAS
- Apply, PE Oxadiazon @ 0.8 kg ha-1 followed by one earthing up using hoes (or) working star type weeder
- pply, PE Metalachlor @ 1.0 kg ha-1 followed by one hand weeding on 40 DAS.
12. EARTHING UP Process In Groundnut Cultivation
Accomplish earthing up during second hand weeding/late hand weeding (in erbicide application). It is an important operation in groundnut. Earthing up is to be done within 40-45 days after sowing as it helps for the penetration of pegs in the soil and also facilitates for increased pod development. Do not disturb the soil after 45th day of sowing as it will affect pod formation adversely.
14. WATER MANAGEMENT In Groundnut Cultivation
Regulate irrigation according to the following growth phase of the crop.
Pre-flowering phase : 1 to 25 days
Flowering phase : 26 to 60 days
Maturity phase : 61 to 105 days
Regulate irrigation based on physiological growth phases. Pegging, flowering and pod development phases are critical for irrigation during which period adequate soil moisture is essential. Apply irrigation as follows:
- Sowing or pre-sowing
- Life irrigation, 4 – 5 days after sowing if sowing irrigation given to break the surface crust.
- 20 days after sowing
- At flowering give two irrigations
- At pegging stage give one or two irrigation
In pod development stage, 2 – 3 irrigations depending on the soil type
HARVESTING In Groundnut Cultivation
Observe the crop, considering its average duration. Drying and falling of older leaves and yellowing of the top leaves indicate maturity. Pull out a few plants at random and shell the pods. If the inner shell is brownish black and not white, then the crop has matured. Irrigate prior to harvest, if the soil is dry, as this will facilitate easy harvesting. If there is enough moisture in the soil, there is no need for irrigation for harvesting. If water is not available for irrigating the field prior to harvest, work a mould board plough or work a country plough, so that the plants are uprooted. Engage labour to search pods left out in the soil, if necessary.
YIELD: Under rainfed conditions, the average yield of semi-spreading and spreading varieties is 1200-1400 kg of unshelled pods per hectare and that of bunch types is 800-1,000 kg.