Important Agriculture Terms For Competitive Exam Part 2

Agriculture Terms

Alluvial soil: A soil developed from recently deposited alluvium and exhibiting essentially no horizon development or modification of the recently deposited materials.

Alluviation: The process of accumulation of gravel deposits, sand, silt or clay, at places in rivers, lakes or estuaries where the flow is checked.

Alluvium: Sediments deposited by running water of streams and rivers.

Alternative agriculture/farming: A concept of farming based on the exclusion of mineral fertilizers and synthetic pesticides but including mainly organic manures, waste recycling and biological agents, as in organic farming, in contrast to modern agriculture in which optimum use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides is sought to be made.

Alternative crops: Non-traditional crops that can be grown in an area to diversify rotations and increase income. Alternative energy: Energy produced from sources other than fossil fuels (solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biomass).

Altimeter: An instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.

Aman rice: A term used in Bangladesh and East India for lowland rice grown in the wet season during June to November. Water depth does not exceed 0.5 m.

Amino acid: Class of organic compounds containing the amino (-NH2) group and the carboxyl (-COOH) group. Aminoacids are building blocks of proteins. Alanine, proline, threonine, histidine, lysine, glutamine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, arginine, tyrosine, and leucine are the common amino acids.

Amphoteric: A substance that can act as either an acid or a base in a reaction. e.g., aluminium hydroxide can neutralize mineral acids or strong bases.

Angiosperm: A plant in which the female gamete is protected within an enclosed ovary. A flowering plant.

Anthocyanins: A class of water-soluble pigments that account for many of the red to blue floral and fruit colurs. Anthocyanins are found in the vacuole.

Apical dominance: The phenomenon in the plant where the apical shoot/buds have inhibitory influence on the growth of lateral shoot and buds.

Apomixis: Asexual development of embryo (seed) in the ovary without fertilization.

Arable farming: Farming system that involves the production of crops requiring tillage.

Arable land: Land which is ploughed, and on which crops are cultivated.

Arboricide: Chemical used to kill trees

Arboriculture: Cultivation of woody plants, particularly those used for decoration and shade.

Arboriculture: Cutivation of trees. Aridisols: Mineral soils that have an aridic moisture regime, an ochric epipedon and other pedogenic horizons but no oxic horizon. These are desert soils.

Aridity index: A measure of the dryness of a region and is expressed as
Number of rainy days × Mean precipitation per day /Mean temperature + 10

Arviculture: Crop science

Asexual reproduction: The multiplication of plants by vegetative means through budding, grafting, rooting of cuttings, or division.

Associative Symbiosis: Loose association between the roots of nonleguminous plants (grasses, wheat, maize, rice, sorghum etc.) and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, primarily Azospirillum.

Augmentation cropping: when subcrops are sown to supplement the yield of the main crops, the subcrops are known as augmenting crops. e.g., Japanese mustard with berseem, Chinese cabbage with mustard. Here the mustard or cabbage helps in getting a higher yield of fodder in spite of the fact that berseem gives a poor yield in the first cutting.

Aus rice: A photoperiod-insensitive, rainfed, drought prone, lowland, or upland rice, broadcast and transplanted during the early part of the wet season from March to September in Bangladesh and from April to August in east India.

Autecology: The study of details of how an individual or a species interacts with its environment.

Autotroph: An organism that can live on very simple carbon and nitrogen sources, such as carbon dioxide and ammonia.

A-value technique:

• Radio-chemical analysis of plants grown on soils which have been treated with fertilizers containing elements such as radio active phosphorus.

• A – value technique may be used to calculate the phosphorus supply of original soil.

• A-value is defined as available soil nutrient determined in terms of a standard fertilizer used. It is used for the assessment of available P and S in soils expressed as A =B(1 − Y)/Y

B = amount of nutrient in the applied fertilizer

Y = Proportion of the nutrient in the plant derived from fertilizer

• A-value can only be determined by tracer technique using a labeled fertilizer.

• A-value technique is used in research, not for farm advisory purposes.

Avenue crops: These crop plants are grown along the farm roads and fences such as pigeonpea, sisal, Glyricidia and Tephrosia.

Azolla: Azolla is a fresh water fern found in ponds, ditches, canals and paddy fields. It fixes N in symbiotic association with cyanobacterium (BGA) Anabaena azollae. It fixes 25-40 kg N ha-1 crop-1. Azolla is an excellent food for fish, ducks and pigs.

Azomonas: It is a non-symbiotic aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria under the family Azotobacteriaceae. Its optimum temperature for growth is 20o– 30oC and pH range is 4.5 to 9.0 (optimum 7.0-7.5). Azomonas has three species: Azomonas agilis, Azomonas insignis and Azomonas macrocytogenes.

Azorhizobium: A stem-nodulating bacterium, which is capable of forming root nodules as well as stem nodules on tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. Grouped under Azorhizobium in Rhizobium classification. e.g., Azorhizobium caulinodans.

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