Important Components of Organic Farming

Organic manures

  • Organic manures such as FUM, biogas slurry, compost, straw or other crop residues, biofertilizers, green manures and cover crops can substitute for inorganic fertilizers to maintain the environmental quality.
  • Organic farmers may also use the see weeds, fish manures and some permitted fertilizers like basic slag and rock phosphate.

Non-Chemical Weed Control Measures

  • Mechanical weed control, especially in row crops.
  • No herbicides are used. Cultural, biological and physical methods are resorted to.
  • Botanical herbicides, mycoherbicides and bioagents are employed to control weeds.

Biological Pest Management

  • Non-chemical, biological pest management is encouraged.
  • Natural enemies of pests are encouraged. Botanical pesticides such as those derived from neem could be used.
  • Microbial pesticides like Bacillus thuringiensis is used.

Nutrient Management in Organic Farming

  • The first task in OF is to protect the soil fertility and health. Use of organic manures, crop rotation, use of crop residues, green manures, intercropping with legumes, use of biofertilizers etc., are resorted to.

Limiting nutrient losses

  • Better recycling of wastes.
  • Handling of organic wastes.
  • Application of organic matter at right time, method and quantity.
  • Reducing run off by following conservation practices.
  • Conservation of organic matter by decreasing burning of crop residues.
  • In wet land, deceasing denitrification losses of nutrients.
  • Nutrient release and time of uptake must be synchronized.
  • Cropping pattern.
  • Pumping of nutrient by hedge row planting.
  • Minimizing the exports of nutrients from the farm.

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