Introduction to nutrition
(Agrilearner) Nutrition is defined as the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and utilizes food substances.Essential nutrients include protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, minerals and electrolytes. Normally, 85% of daily energy use is from fat and carbohydrates and 15% from protein. In humans, nutrition is mainly achieved through the process of putting foods into our mouths, chewing and swallowing it. The required amounts of the essential nutrients differ by age and the state of the body, for example: physical activity, diseases present (e.g. prostate cancer, breast cancer or weakened bones – known asosteoporosis), medications, pregnancy and lactation.(Agrilearner)
NUTRITION. Food is comprised of nutrients that are classified by their role in the body: the energy-yielding macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, protein, and fat), the essential micro-nutrients (vitamins, minerals, and water), and numerous other components. Although micro-nutrients do not supply energy to fuel the body, they are indispensable for the proper functioning of the metabolic and regulatory activities in the body. Other nonessential nutrients, such as flavonoids, phytoestrogens, carotenoids, and probiotics, also may have important health-promoting properties, and investigations are ongoing. The daily intake of a variety of foods provides energy and nutrients that are essential to the health and well-being of an individual. The relationships among food intake, nutrition, and health define the field of nutrition. More fully, nutrition is the study of food, its nutrients and chemical components, and how these constituents act and interact within the body to affect health and disease.
The scope of the field has grown in recent years and the boundaries between the science of nutrition and many other biological sciences have blurred. For example, the science of nutrition includes chemistry to study how food ingredients interact with each other; physiology to investigate how nutrients within food are assimilated into body tissues; engineering to design new fortified foods; anthropology to explore why we chose to eat certain foods in centuries past; and psychology to determine what attitudes and behaviors influence our dietary patterns today. Nutritionists often have either a college or advanced degree in nutrition or a related field, whereas clinical (human) nutrition specialists will have graduate degrees, which may include medicine, and have completed an examination for certification. Registered dietitians are nutrition professionals who are often responsible for applying nutritional science to clinical practice to promote health and treat disease.
(Agrilearner) field of nutrition is divided into three major categories:
(1) nutrition in research,
(2) nutrition in clinical practice, and
(3) nutrition in policy and education.
An overview of nutritional research is presented, from how nutrients interact within the body and among themselves (nutritional biochemistry), to the investigation of the relationships between specific foods or food groups and the health status of populations (nutritional epidemiology). Research findings in the field provide the information needed to guide nutrition practice for the care of individuals as well as large groups of people. The development of nutrition policy comes from both research and clinical practice advances. Concise descriptions of each are given and a brief history of the field and projected directions of the future of the field are offered.
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