Jute (Corchorus capsularis L and C.olitorius L.)
family : Tiliaceae
The jute cultivation in every district of Bengal is spoken of as of modern origin.
introduction: of jute cultivation
Jute (Corchorus capsularis L and C.olitorius L.) is one of the most important cash crops of eastern India. Exported as goods and as raw fibre. India suffered a great setback in the production of jute as a result of partition of the country in 1947 because about 75 per cent of the jute producing areas went to Bangladesh (East Pakistan at that time) Fortunately, most of the jute mills remained in India. Strenuous efforts were made to increase production and area of jute, immediately after partition to feed our starving jute mills in the wake of short supply of raw jute.
the production of jute in India recorded a rapid increase of two and half times in a span of 37 years increasing from 4.1 million bales (each bale of 180 kg) in 1960-61 to ten million bales in 1997-98. After 1997-98, varying trends in production have been observed.
Climate required for jute cultivation
Jute is the crop of hot and humid climate. It requires high temperature varying from 24°C to 35°C and heavy rainfall of 120 to 150 cm with 80 to 90 per cent relative humidity during the period of its growth Small amount of pre-monsoon rainfall varying from 25 cm to 55 cm is very useful because it helps in the proper growth of the plant till the arrival of the proper monsoon. Incessant and untimely rainfalls as well as prolonged droughts are detrimental to this crop. Rainfall between 2.5 to 7.5 cm in a month, during the sowing period, is considered to be sufficient.
soil needed in jute cultivation
The new grey alluvial soil of good depth, receiving silt from the annual floods, is best for jute. Widely grown in sandy loams and clay loams, with varying clays are unsuitable. The optimum pH range is around 6.4
Variety of jute cultivation
JRC 321, JRC 212, JRC 7447, D 154, JRC 1108, JRO 632, JRO 878,JRO 7835,JRO 620, and C.G’.
Seed Sowing in jute cultivation
Sowing in midlands and highlands starts with showers in March or April and continues till early June in the western part of the jute belt. For broadcast sowing, the seed rates are 10 and 7kg per hectare for capsularis and olitorius varieties. Seedlings, are thinned out in broadcast, plots. This operation is carried out in two instalments, once when the seedlings are about 10cm and subsequently when they are about 15cm tall. In row cropping a single row seed drill is used to sow the capsularis varieties 30 cm apart and the olitorius varieties 20cm apart and 7.5cm. Sowing is always done shallow. (jute cultivation)
Fertilizer Application in jute cultivation
Acid soils require amendment with 3-7 tonnes of lime in 3 years. Compost or farmyard manure requirement at the rate of 4-7 tonnes per hectare. Phosphorus (P2O5) and potash (K2O) are applied as basal nutrients, whereas nitrogen (N) is top-dressed in two installment- N (40-80 kg per ha for capsularis varieties, 20-60kg per ha for olitorius varieties)- P (half of the quantity of N) and K (quantity equal to N). jute cultivation
Weed Management in jute cultivation
Wedding specially in the early stage, is a must. For a broadcast crop, the pre sowing application of 2,2,3,3 tetrafluorpropionate of sodium proved to be beneficial. Smothering the weeds between rows with a wheel-hoe helps to mulch the soil. jute cultivation
Pests found in jute cultivation
The growth of the plants is checked, the late sown crop is more vulnerable; peak incidence occures in July to mid -August
Spray 0.05% Endosulfan or 0.1% Carbaryl
Jute stem weevil
Grubs attack nodal joints below the leaf base and the side of the leaf base; sometimes internodes, petioles and buds are also attacked
Remove and destroy stubble alternative host plants and infested plants; spray as for the semi looper above
The larvae feed gregariously on the leaves and in severe cases completely defoliate the plants.
Dust 5-10% Heptachlor to the early stage of caterpillars.
Disease found during jute cultivation
Stem rot or dry rot
Roots become brown and discoloured below the bark; brown spots are formed in the collar region on which black dot-like pycnidia appear; the collar rots, the affected plant sheds its leaves and dies.
Grow resistant varieties: practise crop sanitation; treat seed with Captan @ 6g/kg
White powdery patches appear on the undersurface of the leaves; the corresponding upper portions just above patches become pale and brown
Dust the crop with finely powdered sulphur @ 15 kg per hectare.
A white weft of mycelium is formed near the base of the plant on which white to reddish-tan spherical sclerotia appear.
Practise crop rotation and sertilize the soil.
Harvesting Practise During Jute Cultivation
Jute may be harvested any time between 120 and 150 days. Early harvesting gives finer fibre of good quality. The compromise between quality and quantity is found in harvesting at the early pod stage or around 135 days of cropping. Harvesting is done by cutting the plants at or close to the ground level. In flooded land, plants are uprooted. The harvested plants are left in field for 2-3 days for the leaves to shed.
Yield from Jute Cultivation
The average is 13 quintals per hectare. 27 quintals in the case of the capsularis varieties. the maximum potential being 40 quintals and 37 quintals respectively.