New Innovation In Agriculture

New Innovation In Agriculture

New Innovation In Agriculture

1. Agro – Bio – Technology

Research & developmental steps—

In world hectarage of bio-technological crops, there had been a growth of nearly 11% during the year 2000, over the previous year, wherein, it was registered for 44·2 million hectare in 6 continents and 51% growth remained in developed countries; and on this area, ‘biotechque crops’ were raised. Such information could be made available by “Global Review of Commercialized Transgenic Crops; 2000”, which was prepared by “International Service for the Execution of Agro-biotech Application.” This is a independent agency, which acts as monitoring of application of Bio-tech-crops for universe (global). 

In Argentina, during 2000, there had been a growth of 3·3 million hectare in soybean and maize and medium growth was noticed in genetically modified improved varieties of cotton; whereas, in U.S.A. (America), the growth of 1·6 million hectare in genetically modified crops was recorded.

Likewise, on an area of one lakh hectare in transgenic maize and cotton in South Africa; Cotton on 1·5 lac hectare in Australia and on 2 lakh hectare in Bt. Cotton in China was increased. Thus, in all four countries (Argentina and China both developed countries; America and Canada both Industrially developed countries), in 2000 transgenic crops of the world were raised. Now, in China, nearly on 10% area of the cotton is under transgenic crops.

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In Africa, there is a significant growth in banana production through bio-tech, as in Kenya. In India, research work is to be taken on ‘Golden Rice’ having Beta-carotene content and that converted into Vit ‘A’. It is thought by the Scientists that in children, the blindness in India is due to the deficiency of Vit ‘A’ and this would fullfil the requirement of Vit. ‘A’. There is a need to develop Beta carotene in prevailing rice varieties like IR–64 and Pusa-1., for which Biotech Department Swiss Researchers and Monsanto Company will work jointly. If gets success in this research work, then, in next 5 to 7 years, the farmers would be able to grow such golden rice.

● Crops

● A large number of cotton transgenics have been developed with Cry 1 Ac gene for resistance to Helicoverpa armigera.

● Male sterile transgenic lines of mustard (Brassica juncea) expressing barnase gene in tapetum are being diversified into appropriate combiners, is being tested in field.

● In bread wheat, development of varieties with dual resistance to leaf and stripe rusts using molecular marker technology were identified.

● Bio-fertilizers—The development of superior N-fixing micro-organisms is on priority in bio-technology. The work on Anabaena, Nostoc and Elite Azoto-bacter is in progress, besides Integrated Nutrients Management Packages for certain plantation crops to enhance the yield and saving to nitrogenous fertilizers.

● Biological Control—Several cost-effective, commercially viable mass-production technologies of bio-control agents/bio-pesticides have been developed and standardized.

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2. Mexican or Pickly Poppy/ Satyanashi (Argemone mexicana L.)

The ‘Episode–1998’ came in lime-light through-out the country to a wide spread incidence of a fetal disease known as dropsy. This disease is popularly known as ‘Epidemic dropsy’ caused by the Mexican poppy seeds mixed with mustard seeds at the time of oil extraction. It’s incidence occurred in 1926, but the adulteration level in oil was only 0·01%, whereas in 1998, it was adulterated 10 to 30% in oil. The seeds of Mexican poppy contains Allyl Iso thiocynate, having pungency. Epidemic dropsy attack takes place owing to consumption of the oil adulterated and expelled prickly seeds with mustard. In this disease, several problems in human are raised like-gastric, loss of apetite, loose motions, swelling of feet and sometimes, there develop fleshy, deep red spots inside the gums, tongue and the nose for the treatment, multi-vitamins have been found effective.

In India, this weed ‘Satyanashi’ is called by various names like; Kantakushum, Kanteeli, Katara, Ban-Mirch, Sheel Kanta, Kandiyars, Bhadbhund etc., It can be seen in rabi (wheat), and gardens of mango, guava and ber, ranging from 10% (with wheat) to 40% in gardens.

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It is said about its use that its stem/leaves powder is act as amendment for usar (Satinealkali) soils reclaimation. It also controls H. cajani insect in lobia (cowpea) using 2% poppy, seeds extract, and also Meloidogyne javanica in Okra.

Certainly, ‘Satyanashi’ is a weed, that struggles, with crop plants for water, plant nutrients, sunlight etc., and reduces crop yields. It can be controlled by the use of Fluroxypyr @ 3-4 kg a.i./ha (Pre-emer.) in wheat; Fluchloralin @ 0·5% in pea application and 2, 4-D (80% Na salt) at 625 g/ha as Post-emer in wheat.

3. Environmental Bio-technology

Application of bio-technology for industrial effluent treatment, restoration of degraded ecosystems, wastelands and mine spoil dumps; demonstration of the technology at the site of the user industry and conservation and characterization of bio-diversity using molecular tools, are the thrust areas on priority in environmental biotechnology.

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Nature’s Vicious Cycle Floods, drought, excess rainfall and unexpected rise of temperature, fire in forests/wild forests, sea-storm, earthquake etc., are considered as calamities of nature. Major components of climate like-sunlight, temperature, atmospheric effects, wind, humidity, precipitation (rainfall), clouds formation and ocean currents etc., are affected adversely by EL-NINO, resulting thereby a usual damage of human, fish, forests bio-animals-zoo, besides a loss of billion and billion dollars. On account of these, the universe as a whole is affected; for example in Indonesia and near by areas drought occured months, severe (furiously) wild/forest fires in Sumatra, Borneo and Malaysia, temperatures reached 108°F in Mangolia, Kenya’s rainfall received 40 inches above normal, Central Europe suffered record flooding that killed 55 in Poland and 60 in the Czech Republic, Madagascar battered with monsoons and cyclones; damage due to Cyclones and sea-storms in Paradeep areas of Orissa in India etc., are the nature calamities and no end of these. Very recently, on 26th Dec., 2004 (morning at 6 AM), Sumatra sea Cyclone its intensity measured to about 8·9 at Richter Scale (Sunami Waves) that caused a severe damage in India particularly in coastal are of Orissa, A.P., T.N., Kerala states, Andaman & Nicobar Islands etc. and a great loss of human (die) and wealth, especially of fishermen.

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The reverse effect or mechanism of EL-NINO is called LA-NINO, those happen after oneanother. In last 15-20 years in the world, the effects of LA-NINO were seen for the first time in 1982-83, second in 1986-87 and later in 1995. Since 1998, there appeared the second effect of LA-NINO. The effects of LA-NINO are observed less clear than the effects of EL-NINO; wherein (LA-NINO) atmospheric pressure reaches unexpacted high. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) first announced a possible EL-NINO as early as April, 1997; Australia and Japan followed a month later. The scientist and statisticians of Meteorology Departments do not distinguish between ELNINO and LA-NINO, but both are similar/or one.

Climate Modelling, Software are being prepared with the help of Atmospheric Physics. According to Ants Leetmaa, Director, NOAA’s Climate Prediction Centre, in last 98 years, EL-NINOs happened 23 times and LANINO nearly 15 times, resulting thereby, there appeared a happy change in the trends of rainfall and temperature from one decade to second decade. It is expected that in last 100 years, the global temperature has gone-up high 1/10th of a degree Fahrenheit (F) temperature. Are the scientists be able predict early in advance before any calamity happens ? It is deficult to say, yes. In general, the awareness and know-how for precautions are given only, after EL-NINO or LANINO happens, so that the human, animals may be saved through losses.

5. Need of Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture & EverGreen Revolution

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● By 2025, in India’s population, it is expected to increase 15 crore human, which will require additional 32·5 crore tonnes of foodgrains, keeping in view of present level of production, we have to increase every year an additional foodgrains of 50 lakh tonnes, which could be added 31 lakh tonnes each year within last 40 years. Since, the per capita land availability is decreasing fast, which was 0·48 hectare in 1981, and reduced to 0·15 hectare in 2000. On the gate of 21st centuary, today it is difficult task to Indian Agriculture for providing ‘Food Safety and Nutritional Security’. In fact, the Green Revolution’ was achieved on account of fertilizers, improved & HYV’s of crops, irrigation facilities-expansion in rice and wheat areas. But, the present day agriculture has gone fertilizers and pesticides (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides) based. In controlling insects-pests and diseases, heavy-use of pesticides is practised; resulting adverse effects on human health and creating environmental pollution. Nearly, more than one lakh ton pesticides is being used every year in Indian Agriculture. The answer of this problem is to adopt organic farming, integrating fertilizers and organic manures likeFYM, compost, oilcakes, vermi-compost etc., and reducing pesticides use.

● With the excessive use of fertilizers and chemicals (pesticides–fungicides, insecticides and herbicides), the adverse effects are appeared; some of those are; increased in toxicity of soil-residuals of pesticides, ‘aminase’ production due to nitrogenous fertilizers created cancer problem in human, bad effects of pesticides residues on human body viz., on central nervous system, respiration system, and gastro-intestinal system; human depression, etc., the earthworms are not present in soil due to these chemicals application. The production (release) of ‘Green House Gas’ i.e., Nitrogen Oxide due to fertilizers application in soil, is damaging the Ozon layer and increase in Global temperature.

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● Major Steps of Organic Farming—

(i) Use of organic manures and bio-products in place of fertilizers;

(ii) Application of ‘ITK’ (Indigenous Technical Knowledge)

(iii) Controlling insect-pests, diseases and weeds through IPM–Integrated Pest Management adoption, or Bio-control Systems, in place of chemicals,

(iv) For improving soil health and productivity, application of wide management techniques.

● In Principles of Organic Farming—Get the advantage of nature gifted soil in agriculture; thinking soil-as viable system; farming systems be based on internal understanding of natural system; maintaining soil fertility through bio-systems using bio-fertilizers, biopesticides etc., There is a proverb for soil; “A soil without manure is as useless as a cow without Calf.” Thus, soil should be fertilized through organics for sustainable agriculture.

● Essentials for Sustainable Agriculture— Stages of Agricultural development in India has remained as;

(i) Pre-Green Revolution,

(ii) Green Revolution,

(iii) Post-Green Revolution and

(iv) Commercialization–In commercialization, there is a need of further diversification of cropping pattern from low to high value crops for value addition. In fact, sustainability in crop yields has come-up in ‘Post-Green Revolution’i.e., mainly after 1985 to till date.

This requires now;

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(i) Integration of organic manures like–FYM, Compost, Vermi-compost, ‘NADEP’ Composting, oil cakes etc., with fertilizers;

(ii) Use of Bio-fertilizers like; Azotobacter, Azospirillum, PSB–Phosphate solubilizing Bacteria; BGA–Blue Green Algae; Azolla, VAM etc., Therefore, in this context, several National & International Seminars/Symposium/Worshops etc., are being held in the country in SAU’s (State Agricultural Universities) / ICAR Institutes & International Centres related to Agriculture. Heavy use of pesticides in agriculture / farming system has created several problems. To discourage its application, organic farming is the only answer. It has been reported by UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) that the maximum DDT content was found in Indian Women-milk. Besides; the farmers used to spray of chemicals, are affected 29·8% due to intestinal problems. Similarly, in a survey, it was reported that out of 200 cancer cases in human, 0·5% (say one case) is affected by use of chemicals.

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