New Innovation In Agriculture-2

New Innovation In Agriculture

New Innovation In Agriculture

Use of Bio-Pesticides in Controlling Insect-Pests

In present day agriculture, pesticides are being used in excess, resulting thereby exerting adverse effect on human health. keeping in view this, several new medicines based on extract of plants/plant materials are being prepared. Obviously, one of these medicines is; calisena SD–bio-formulation, that controls the harmful pathogens in soil; has been developed. This has been prepared by fungus and special strain of aspergillus niger. Today, several plant extracts or biopesticides have been prepared like; neem, mentha, tobacco, garlic, chilli, etc., some of these are;

● Keep one part cow-urine + 1/4 part neem leaves (green) + one piece of copper is one pot, put in soil and covered, for 15 days to one month, there after, boil the solution till remains 50%; say 1/2 and get it filter. The extract (bio-pesticide) can be used as spray by adding 50 to 100 times of water.

● Neem (seed) oil (0·03%) @ 2-3 ml/litre water, sprays on mustard for controlling Aphids is appeared useful and effective and no harms to parastic-predators like; 7 spotted worm (lady-bird beetle).

(New Innovation In Agriculture)

Tobacco brew—Tobacco leaves, stem or dust are placed in a container. Boiling water
is added into the containor, which is immediately covered. After 14 hours, the extract is ready. Dilute the extract with 4 parts of water. Use this spray only when insects are a serious problem, since this brew kills insects.

Custard Apple—Seeds are pulverised and mixed with water. Use as spray against aphids, ants and other insects.

Garlic, Onion and Pepper brew—Chop and boil onions, garlic, and red pepper in water for 1-2 minutes, grind/blend the material. Dilute this with 1/4th times of water. Then, pour/spray on plants.

Wood ash—Vegetable seeds, especially cucurbits can be stored with wood ash safely for a longer period. This (wood ash) can also be used in spray; Spray a mixture of wood ash and water-for flea beetles. Spray equal quanty of wood ash and lime powder with soapy water.

(New Innovation In Agriculture)

ITK–Indigenous / Inherited Techni-cal Knowledge / Know-how

The farmer’s-own experiences, that have been obtained from generation to generation, is called Indigenous/Inherited Technical Knowledge/ or Know-how (ITK). If the farming is done on the basis of these experiences coupled with frontier/ advanced/developed technologies, only then, the foodgrain production may be doubled in next 10-15 years of the country. Followings are some of the ITK’s—

(1) ITK’s in storage

In Foodgrains Storage (Wheat)—

Adopt any one of the following—

(i) Neem leaves @ 5 kg / q grain,

(ii) Garlic-bulblets (putti) @ 1·5 kg /q,

(iii) Turmeric powder – 100 g /q,

(iv) Lime @ 250 g/q,

(v) Asafoetida (Heeng) @ 3 g/q,

(vi) Parad Teekadi (mercury) tablets-2 tablets/q,

(vii) Corn cob (without grains) ash @ 200 g/q,

(viii) Wood-ash @ 250 g/ha, or

(ix) 2 Match box-spokes 100 (50 in nos in a match box) /q.

(x) Mentha tablets—(T–14)

(xi) Neem (Azadirachta sps) Tablets—T-31 [Mentha & Neem Tablets/say these 2 formulations prepared by CIMAP, Lucknow (UP), Total 63 types of safe tablets have been formulated.]

(New Innovation In Agriculture)

● For Rice Storage—

(i) Common salt–15-20 pieces/q,

(ii) Deshi Ghee @ 50 g per 1-1·5 q rice

(iii) Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) Tablet—T-45.

(iv) Rice Moth—T-51 (both prepared by CIMAP, Lucknow) (Note—With these use, rice & wheat can be stored safely upto 3–6 months).

For Pulses (dal)— (i) Asafoetida (Heeng) @ 5-6 g/q, (ii) Use of mustard oil while making dals.

For Sesamum (Til)— Castor seeds : @ 4-5 seeds / kg til.

(New Innovation In Agriculture)

(2) Crop Based ITK

In mustard

(i) Thinning at 15-18 DAS to maintain 15 cm plant to plant distance, say 1·5 lac plants/ha–increased yield by 5-10%

(ii) De-topping at 35-40 DAS by sticks (bamboo/arhar sticks) – increased yield by 10-15%

(iii) Seed treatment with 1% garlic-lets (putties) extract, or spraying on standing mustard crop, helps is effective to control-diseases like-white rust, stem rot (Sclerotinia), Alternaria blight and downy mildew.

(iv) Two drops of Soybean oil on heads of Broomrape (Orobanche) are effective to control this total root parasite.

● In Wheat—

(i) Criss-cross (+) sowing of wheat reduces weed density/ sq. m. area.

(ii) Phalaris minor (Genhu Ka mama) can be controlled by changing the crops rotation e.g., berseem, mustard, potato etc., in place of wheat in crop rotation.

● In Gram—

(i) Nipping before flowering and tops can be used as vegetable,

(ii) Seed treatment by butter-milk controls ‘Wilt’ disease.

(New Innovation In Agriculture)

(3) General ITK

● For Field Rats—Use of Besharm (Ban Akaoa) is beneficial for controlling field rats. While for house-rats, keep raw papaya fruit/or pepain, due to this, teeth of rats would be useless and will run away (out) from house.

● Use of Vinegar (Sirka), Jaggery (Gur) and Aniseed (Funnel or Sonf) helps in pickles (achar) preservation.

● Growing marigold with vegetables/cereals, helps to control root-knot nematodes; e.g., in tomato, brinjal, beans, Okra, wheat (in hills) etc..

● Several diseases can be controlled by Soilamendments., like—

(i) Potato ‘black scruf’—by wheat straw, saw dust, oilcakes etc.

(ii) Potato ‘Common Scab’—by Green manure of soybean

(iii) Root-Knot Cyst (Nematode)–by oil cake, saw dust,

Date of Sowing—can control the crop diseases like— Sesamum Phyllody—Sowing be done after 15th July, in place June.

● Use of decoy and trap crops—Orobanche (Broom-rap) a root parasite weed in tomato, tobacco and mustard-taramira can be controlled by sunflower, safflower and gram, as well by any vegetable oil except of that family e.g., if it is in mustard crop Orobanche-can be controlled by Neem oil, (not by mustard oil) and 5-6 drops of soybean oil.

(New Innovation In Agriculture)

Mixed Cropping—Rhizoctonia root-rot of cotton can be controlled by mothbean as mixed crop with cotton.

Crop Rotation—With the change in crop rotation, verticillium ‘Wilt’ of cotton by rice; Tomato bacterial ‘Wilt’ by sorghum, ‘Wilt’ of pigeonpea by sorghum; ‘Collar rot’ of groundnut by bajra, sorghum and maize, etc.

● Motha grassnut (Cyprus rotundus) can be controlled by Peepal tree leaves-make compost and use in crop as well as 3 years til (sesame) crop take in rotation.

● Amarbel (cuscula) stem parasite on tree and berseem can be controlled by butter milk spray.

(New Innovation In Agriculture)

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