Plant Breeding One Liner
● India is the first country in the world to develop varieties of hybrid cotton.
● “Jai Vigyan Rashtriya Vigyan and Praudhyogiki Mission-1999” was started on protection (Plant Genetic Resources) of Agro Bio-diversity.
● ‘INDU’- A high yielding variety of Yam (Dioscorea alata) was released by Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kumarakom (Kerala), and this was the clonal selection of the material sent by NBPGR. Its production efficiency is around 47 ton/ ha and is suitable for intercropping in coconut orchard. This also gives 25% higher yield than variety ‘Shree-rupa’.
(Plant Breeding One Liner)
● Wheat—variety ‘Shreshtha’ (HD-2687) & PBW-550 for irrigated and timely sowing ; ‘UP-2425’-irrigated and late sown;
Maize— Vivek Hybrid-4 (Early Variety);
Baby Corn—Him. 129, VL-42, Pusa Hybrid-1, Pusa Hybrid-2 and Prakash;
Barley—DWR27, DWR-28, UBE-441, UBE-446, UBE-477 and UBE-990 (Two-row barley) and K-633, UBE-435 (6-row barley), have been identified as good varieties of these crops.
● Sorghum—Early Hybrid CSH-17 for Kharif;
Pearl Millet-Pusa-415, Pusa Hybrid 605 are the good varieties for yield. (Plant Breeding One Liner)
● The mating or hybridization between two such individuals, of the pedigree of a parent, is called ‘Inbreeding’.
● Smaller/ or Minor millets e.g. Kodo, Mondua (Ragi), Sawa, Kakun (Kangni, Kamuni), Cheena etc. are the rich source of protein and lysine.
● Clonal propagation of heterozygous plants is promoted by tissue culture of juvenile cells of apical meristem.
● Removing or replacing immature anthers from any bisexual flower, is called emasculation.
● The progency obtained from hybridization in individuals or strains of two or more different genotypes, is called cross/ or hybrid. (Plant Breeding One Liner)
● Generally, corresponding breeding between two varieties./ or breeds of the same species, is called ‘Cross Breed’.
● Cross pollinated crops—Such individual of plants grown for production and its each plant having same gene collection or pair source produces new genotypes generation to generation, e.g. toria,brown mustard, sunflower etc.
● Cross pollination is that process, wherein the transfer of pollen grains of a flower to the stigma of any another flower, is happened.
● Crossing over—During meiosis, exchange of homologous segments between homologous chromosomes segments, which happens in pachytene stage.
● ‘Roguing’ is that process, wherein the unwanted plants are removed from seed production field/plots, i.e., pull-out/or destroy the unwanted or rogue plants before flowering or seed setting from the field. (Plant Breeding One Liner)
● Rogue plants—In any crop, the undesirable/ or off type/or unwanted plants either of weeds or other crop (s) or another variety of same crop, are called rogue plants e.g. in wheat (UP 2338) field- chenopodium weed or plants of another wheat variety like-HD 2329 or gram plants in wheat (UP 2338).
● Isolation—Separating two plants, strains or populations, by avoiding mating or hybridization in them generally possible by distance or border rows.
● Isolation distance—The distance to be maintained between seed crop and contaminated crop in seed certification/ multiplication, is called ‘Isolation distance’.
● Registered Seed—Such seeds, wherein satisfactory genetic identity and purity be maintained, those seeds must be certified through seed certification agency (say; progeny of foundation seed).
● Certified Seed—Certified seed is the progency of breeder, foundation or registered seed, produced by States Seed Farms or by certified farmers, which is handled to maintain satisfactory genetic purity and acceptable to certifying agency.
(Plant Breeding One Liner)
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