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Plant Breeding Pdf

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Objectives of Plant Breeding :

1. Higher yield : The ultimate aim of plant breeding is to improve the yield of economic produce. It may be grain yield, fodder yield, fibre yield, tuber yield, cane yield or oil yield depending upon the crop species. Improvement in yield can be achieved either by evolving high yielding varieties or hybrids.(Plant Breeding Pdf)

2. Improved quality: Quality of produce is another important objective in plant breeding. The quality characters vary from crop to crop. Eg. grain size, colour, milling and backing quality in wheat. Cooking quality in rice, malting quality in barley, size, colour and size of fruits, nutritive and keeping quality in vegetables, protein content in pulses, oil content in oilseeds, fibre length, strength and fineness in cotton.(Plant Breeding Pdf)

3. Abiotic resistance : Crop plants also suffer from abiotic factors such as drought, soil salinity, extreme temperatures, heat, wind, cold and frost, breeder has to develop resistant varieties for such environmental conditions. (Plant Breeding Pdf)
4. Biotic resistance : Crop plants are attacked by various diseases and insects, resulting in considerable yield losses. Genetic resistance is the cheapest and the best method of minimizing such losses. Resistant varieties are developed through the use of resistant donor parents available in the gene pool.(Plant Breeding Pdf)

5. Change in maturity Duration / Earliness : Earliness is the most desirable character which has several advantages. It requires less crop management period, less insecticidal sprays, permits new crop rotations and often extends the crop area. Development of wheat varieties suitable for late planting has permitted rice-wheat rotation. Thus breeding for early maturing crop varieties, or varieties suitable for different dates of planting may be an important objective. Maturity has been reduced from 270 days to 170 days in cotton, from 270 days to 120 days in pigeonpea, from 360 days to 270 days in sugarcane.(Plant Breeding Pdf)

6. Determinate Growth : Development of varieties with determinate growth is desirable in crops like Mung, Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan), Cotton (Gossypium sp.), etc.(Plant Breeding Pdf)

7. Dormancy : In some crops, seeds germinate even before harvesting in the standing crop if there are rains at the time of maturity, e.g., Greengram, Blackgram, Barley and Pea, etc. A period of dormancy has to be introduced in these crops to check loss due to germination. In some other cases, however, it may be desirable to remove dormancy.(Plant Breeding Pdf)

8. Desirable Agronomic Characteristics: It includes plant height, branching, tillering capacity, growth habit, erect or trailing habit etc., is often desirable. For example, dwarf ness in cereals is generally associated with lodging resistance and better fertilizer response. Tallness, high tillering and profuse branching are desirable characters in fodder crops. (Plant Breeding Pdf)

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