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Plant Pathology

  • Father of Plant pathology- Anton De Bary
  •  Father of Indian Plant Pathology- E. J. Butler
  •  An Indian whose name is associated with wheat rust- K. C. Mehta
  •  Irish Famine(1845)- Due to late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Bengal Famine(1943)- Due to brown spot of rice (Helminthosporium oryzae)
  • Father of plant virology- Beijerinck
  • Father of plant Bacteriology- E. f. smith
  •  Most imp disease of rice- Blast (Pyricularia oryzae) controlled by Hinosan, Kitazin, Blasticidin, Beam.
  •  Kresek phase- Bacterial leaf blight of rice (Xanthomonas oryzae)
  • Bakanae disease of rice (Foot rot)- Gibberella fujikuroi (Also known as Foolish
    seedling disease-symptom: plant become very tall)
  •  Sheath rot of rice- Sclerotium oryzae
  •  Rice Tungro- A virus transmitted by Nephottetix virescens
  •  Ufra disease of rice- By nematode (Ditylenchus angustus)
  •  Most pathogenic bacteria are gram negative and rod shaped Gram positive plant pathogenic bacteria: Corynebacterium/ Clavibacter (tundu disease of wheat)
  •  Tundu disease caused by- Bacteria and nematode (Anguina tritici) association, a complex disease
  • Plant viruses are mostly single stranded RNA
  • Virus contain only one type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, never both
  • Virus contain nucleic acid 5 % and protein (nucleoprotein)– 95 % (TMV)
  • Tobacco mosaic virus is single stranded RNA- Rod shaped transmitted by sap or mechanically.
  •  Single stranded DNA plant virus- Gemini virus
  • Double stranded RNA virus- Reovirus
  • Double stranded DNA virus- Caulimovirus
  • Total stem parasite- Cascuta (Dodder)
  • Partial stem parasite- Loranthus
  • Total root parasite- Orobanche
  • Partial root parasite- Striga
  • Bacterial cell wall is made up of – Murein/peptidiglycan
  •  Karnal bunt of wheat discovered by- Mitra et al., in 1931
  •  A disease affecting wheat export from India- Karnal Bunt (Neovossia indica /
    Tilletia indica)
  • Wheat: a. Stem Rust (Black) – Puccinia graminis tritici– Alternate host: Berberi
    (Berberis vulgaris) b. Leaf rust (Brown) – P. recondita, Alternate host: Thalictrum sp. c) Stripe rust (Yellow)- P. striiformis
  •  Rust disease is controlled by Plantvax– a systemic fungicide
  • Smut disease is controlled by- Vitavax (a systemic fungicide)
  • Wheat rust in India survive in the southern hill (Nilgiri) and in Northern hill (Himalaya) in the form of Uredospore
  •  Loose smut of wheat- Ustilago nuda tritici (Internally seed borne, controlled by Vitavax, solar Heat Treatment)
  • Molya disease of wheat- Nematode- Heterodora avanae
  • Black arm of cotton- Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum
  • Red rot of sugarcane- Collectrichum fulcatum
  •  Grassy shoot- Phytoplasma
  •  Sporadic- Occurs irregularly in a place at low level
  •  Endemic– Occurs every year in a confined area at some level
  • Pandemic– Occurs over a few countries or few continents
  •  Epidemic– Occurs over a large geographic area in short time at a devastative level
  • Viroid– a plant pathogen made up of only RNA (single stranded). No protein is there
  •  Prions– Infectious protein molecule
  • Potato- 1. Spindle tuber disease (1st discovered Viroid disease)
  •  Other Viroid disease- Coconut cadang cadang, Citrus exocartis
  • Disease caused by Phytoplasma(MLO)– a. sandal spike b. sugarcane grassy shoot c.
    Brinjal little leaf d. Sesamum Phyllody e. coconut root wilt
  •  Disease caused by Spiro plasma (Phyllody)- Citrus stubborn
  • Viral disease- Bunchy top of banana- Pentalonia nigronervosa
  •  Crown gall of stone fruit- Agrobacterium tumefaciens
  •  Fire blight- First bacterial disease discovered- Erwinia amylovora
  •  Ergot of Bajra- Claviceps microcephala (purpurea)
  •  Green ear disease of Bajra- Sclerospora graminicola
  • Wart of potato and Golden nematode- Endemic pest, domestic quarantine
  •  Bunt- Tilletia foetida. T. caries
  •  Fungicide- Bordeaux mixture discovered by Millerdat
  •  Systemic fungicide- Van Schmelling & Marshal Kulka
  •  Pomegranate blight- Xanthomonas campestris pv. punica. Recently epidemic in Maharashtra
  •  Panama wilt of banana- fungal disease
  •  Soft rot of potato- Erwinia carotovora
  •  Kalisena– Bio formulation of Aspergillus niger N27 to control soil borne disease, developed in IARI
  •  Gene deployment for control of Rust- by Nagarajan
  •  Seed gall wheat- Nematode, Molya disease, Anguina tritici
  • Destructive insect pest act- 1914
  •  Cyanobacteria-BGA-prokaryotic
  • Powdery mildew- controlled by sulphur fungicide
  • Apple scab caused by- Venturia inequalis (perfect) Spilocaea pomi (fungi)
  •  Scab of potato caused by- Steptomyces scabies (Actinomycetes)
  •  Electron Microscope discovered by – Knoll and Ruska (1932)
  • Crystallization of Virus – Stanley (1935)
  • First book on plant pathology written by – Julius Kuhn (1858)
  •  Wart disease of Potato is endemic to Darjeeling only
  •  Plasmid – extra chromosomal fragments found in bacterial cells
  •  Gene to gene Hypothesis proposed by – Flor (1955) in linseed rust

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