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PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS

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LEC. 1:- SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF FRUIT CULTIVATION, NUTRITIONAL, COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF FRUIT CROPS, Importance of fruit growing

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LEC .2 FRUIT PRODUCTION SCENARIO, STATE AND NATIONAL LEVEL, IMPACT AND ECONOMIC TREND WITH EMPHASIS TO EXPORT, India is the second largest producer of fruits after Brazil. The total production of fruits in the world is around 370 million MT. India ranks first in the world with an annual output of 32 million MT. While there are almost 180 families of fruits that are grown all over the world, citrus fruits constitute around 20% of world’s total fruit production

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LEC. 3 CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS BASED ON CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS, HORTICULTURAL AND BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION,{ PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }Agroclimatic zones of India,Characteristics of different zones,Fruit growing regions in India,The ICAR, New Delhi, has recognized eight agro climatic zones for effective land use planning,The Climatic Zones.

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LEC. 4 MANGO – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, HIGH DENSITY PLANTING, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, INTERCROPPING, OFF-SEASON PRODUCTION ,Climate and Soil,Varieties,Commercial mango varieties grown in different states, State wise availability of mango in India

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LEC. 5 MANGO– MAJOR PROBLEMS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS,PESTS AND DISEASES AND INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES,DISORDERS,Mango malformation,Black tip,Clustering (Jhumka),Spongy tissue,Use of Growth Regulator,Pest and Diseases

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LEC.6 BANANA – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, HIGH DENSITY PLANTING, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, INTER CULTURAL ,SPECIAL OPERATIONS, Banana : Musa sp Scitaminae Sub family: Musaceae Banana is one of the oldest fruit known to mankind and also important food for man. Origin: South East Asia

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LEC. 7 BANANA – MAJOR PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS –PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES AND INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES,Physiological disorders,Hard lump,Sunscald,Nematode,Viral diseases of banana ,Fungal diseases of banana ,Bacterial diseases

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LEC .8 CITRUS – CLASSIFICATION, SOIL, CLIMATE, VARIETIES,PLANTING, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT,INTERCULTURAL OPERATIONS,CITRUS Citrus spp. { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }1. Acid group ,Orange group, Mandarin group,Pummelo and grape fruit group,Mandarinorange

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LEC.9 CITRUS – NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES, CORRECTIVE MEASURES, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES AND INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, CITRUS Fruit cracking,Granulation,Sunburn or sunscald, Citrus Decline, Post harvest treatment

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LEC.10 GRAPES – SOIL, CLIMATE, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, INTERCULTURAL OPERATIONS,Grapes : Vitis vinifera Vitaceae,Climate and soil { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }requirement,Propagation,Preparation of main field and planting,Manuring and fertilizer (kg pervine).

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LEC. 12 PAPAYA – SOIL, CLIMATE, WATER AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT, PAPAIN EXTRACTION, USES, PESTS AND DISEASES MANAGEMENT,Soil and climate,Seed production ,Propagation,Planting,Manures and fertilizers,Irrigation,After cultivation,Sex expression,Harvesting and yield

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LEC.13 SAPOTA – SOIL, CLIMATE, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT,SPECIFIC PROBLEMS AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES,Sapotaceae,Climate and soil requirement,Propagation,Planting,Irrigation,Manures and fertilizes (kg/tree),After cultivation,Intercropping,Plant protection,Diseases

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LEC. 14 GUAVA – SOIL, CLIMATE, IRRIGATION AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT, NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, Soil and climate, { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }Varieties – refer practicals ,Propagation, Planting, Manures and fertilizers, Irrigation, Cropping

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LEC .15 PINE APPLE – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, HIGH DENSITY,PLANTING, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT,SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS,Soil and Climate,Spacing,Planting,Season,Manures and Fertilizers, After cultivation,Plant protection,Crop duration

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LEC. 16 JACK – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, HIGH DENSITY PLANTING, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, Climatic and soil requirements, VARIETIES,Hybrid jack,Propagation and planting,Training and manuring

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LEC.17 POMEGRANATE – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES,NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURALOPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, Climatic and soil requirements,Hard seeded types,Soft seeded types ,Propagation and planting,Manuring,Irrigation,Training, pruning and other intercultural operations,Plant protection,DISEASES, Management.

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LEC.18 CUSTARD APPLE – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES , NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES,Climatic and soil requirements,{ PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }CULTIVARS,Propagation and planting,Intercultivation,Plant protection,DISEASES,Management,Harvest and storage.

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LEC .19 BER AND JAMUN – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ,Climatic and soil requirements, Varieties , Propagation, preparatory cultivation and planting , Manures and manuring ,Irrigation, Intercultural and pruning , Plant protection, Pests, JAMUN.

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LEC. 20 AMLA – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, INDIAN GOOSE BEERY (OR) AONLA, Climatic and soil requirements , Propagation, { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }Field preparation and planting, Training, pruning, intercultivation and irrigation, Manures and manuring, Plant protection, Harvest and yield

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LEC .21 WOOD APPLE AND BAEL – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, WOOD APPLE, Climatic and soil requirements, Cultivars and propagation, Field preparation and planting, Harvest and yield

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LEC .22 DATE PALM – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, Climatic and soil requirements, Cultivars, Halawy, Khadrawy, Propagation and planting, Irrigation, manuring and inter culture, Fruit set,Plant protection, Harvest, yield and processing.

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LEC .23 SUBTROPICAL FRUITS – MANGOSTEEN – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana), { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }Climatic and soil requirements, Soil, Propagation, Vegetative propagation, Manuring and fertilization, Harvest and yield

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LEC .24 FIG – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, TYPES AND CULTIVARS,{ PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS } Common Fig, Propagation and plantings, After cultivation,Manuring and irrigation,Plant protections,DISEASES,Fruitset, harvest and storage

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LEC. 25 LITCHI – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES,LITCHI (OR) LYCHEE,{ PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS } Climatic and soil requirements, CULTIVARS,Propagation and planting,Training and interculture, Plant protection, Flowering, harvest and yield,

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LEC .26 AVOCADO – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, RACES, VARIETIES, FLOWERING BEHAVIOUR, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, AVOCADO, Climatic and soil requirements, Mexican Race, Guatemalan Race, West Indian Race, CULTIVARS, Propagation and planting, Manurings, Plant protections, Harvest and storage

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LEC. 27 DURIAN AND CARAMBOLA – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }Cultivars, Climate and soil requirements , Propagation and planting, Plant protection, CARAMBOLA, Climatic and soil requirements, CULTIVARS, Plant protections, Flowering, harvest and yield

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LEC .28 RAMBUTAN AND LONGAN – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES,{ PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }Origin, Climate and soil,Propagation, Vegetative propagation, Planting, Training and pruning, Flowering, Harvest and yield , Storage, Plant protection, Climatic and soil requirements, CULTIVARS,Plant protections, Flowering, harvest and yield

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LEC .29 APPLE – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, HIGH DENSITY PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }{ ‘An apple a day keeps the doctor away’. This is the old proverb which significe the nutritive importance of apple in human diet. Apple is a rich source of easily assimilable carbohydrate (13.4%) and it is also fairly rich in calcium (10mg/100g), phosphorus (14 mg/100g), and potassium (120mg/100g). it supplies vitamin B and C. apple has been under cultivation since time immemorial and today more than 80% of the world’s supply is produced in Europe where the major producers are Italy, France, and Germany. Other countries which also produce apple are Hungary, USA, N.C.America, China, Old USSR, India, Spain, Switzerland, Iran and South America}

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LEC .30 APPLE – SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }Special cultural operations, Plant protection,Diseases,Management, Harvest and yield { The drip or trickle irrigation system has high water use efficiency in apples. It also suits the tree in hill slopes. Mulching can be done with straw, hay or sawdust and other organic matter. Weed control can be achieved by application or herbicide such as Pitezin (Atrazine + Simazine + Propazine) @ 8 – 10 kg/ha, after weed emergence in 1.5 M band along tree rows. }

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LEC .31 PEAR – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, Climatic and soil requirements, VARIETIES,{ The probable origin of the Pyrus genus is mountainous China. { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }From there it moved to East and West and in the different ecological conditions, the evolution would have taken place.
Pear is next to apple in the temperate fruits. It is a rich source of carbohydrate as sugars, starch and cellulose and minerals like calcium (8 mg/100g) phosphorous (15mg/100g) and sulphur (14mg/100g). }

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LEC .32 PLUMS AND PRUNES – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES { PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS }{ Sub-tropical plants of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh to high hills of Himalaya in Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir. Great scope exists in NE Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh – important states.}

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LEC. 33 PEACH AND NECTARINES – SOIL, CLIMATE, PLANTING, VARIETIES, NUTRIENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT, SPECIAL CULTURAL OPERATIONS, PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS, PESTS AND DISEASES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES{ PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS } { This is a stone fruit in warm temperate climate also grown in sub-tropics, but of inferior quality. It is most popular because of its attractive colour, excellent quality and taste. Grown in warm temperate zone of Europe, North America, South Africa, Asia and Australia. Nectarines are smooth skin mutants allied to peach. It is non-pubescent peach of smaller size.}

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