- Pear is commercially propagated through grafting on seedling or clonal rootstocks
- Seedling rootstocks are seedlings of Kainth (P pashia) and Shiara ( P serotina).
- Clonal rootstocks are Quince A (vigours), Quince B (Intermediate) and Quince C (dwarf) and BA 29.
- In Punjab, root suckers of cultivated pear are also employed as a rootstock
- Some clonal rootstocks like OH X F-230 (semi-dwarf), Oregon 211 (dwarfing), Oregon260 have been recently released and found promising.
Propagation of seedling rootstock:-
- For raising seedling rootstocks, seeds are extracted from fully mature fruits of Kainth and Shiara.
- For good germination, the seeds are stratified for 30-40 days in alternate layers of moist sand at low temperature (4-5oC) during December- January.
- The pre-stratified seeds are sown in the nursery beds at a distance of 6-10 cm seed to seed and 10-15 cm in rows at a depth of 3-4 cm.
- In very cold areas, the seeds are directly sown in the nursery beds during December. After sowing of the seeds in the nursery beds, the beds are mulched with grass mulch and light irrigation is given.
- When the seeds start germinating and attain 2-3 inch growth mulch material is removed.
- Regular weeding, hoeing and irrigation is required for proper growth of the seedlings. About 80-90% seedling are ready for grafting with in a year.
- Clonal rootstocks are multiplied through mound or trench layering as discussed under apple.
Raising rootstocks from root suckers:
- In plains, the root suckers from pear trees are separated during October-December along with its roots. These suckers are planted in the nursery beds at 15-20cm distance in rows 30cm apart.
- Hard-wood cuttings are taken during dormant season from one year old shoot. Before planting, the cuttings are treated with 100ppm IBA for 24 hours.
Propagation of scion:
- The seedling and clonal rootstocks are grafted with tongue or cleft method of grafting during February.
- The clonal rootstock Quince is not compatible with most of varieties, particularly with Bartlett group, therefore Beurre Hardy and Old Home are used as interstock.
- T-budding during April-May also gives good bud-take success.
Planting and planting density:
- The land selected for pear plantation should be cleared off and all the old stems and roots of earlier growing trees and shrubs need to be removed.
- After cultivating the soil thoroughly, green manuring crops are grown to improve the soil fertility.
- A planting plan is prepared adopting a particular layout system before actual planting.
- The layout system depends on the plant density to be adopted and topography of the land.
- Generally square and rectangular system of planting is followed in flat land, while terrace and contour system in sloppy lands.
- Under high density, hedge row and bed system is used for pear plantation.
- The planting distance ultimately depends upon the soil fertility, cultivars, rootstock and training system.
- Planting is done during December- January.
- Pits of 1x1x1 m size are dug and filled with a mixture of soil, 50-60kg FYM and one kg of single super phosphate about one month before planting.
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