Introduction of sandalwood cultivation
Sandal wood (Santalum album) is the source of world famous Indian sandal wood oil, which is extensively used in the perfumery industry. Both wood and oil are used in incense, perfumes and in medicine.sandalwood being closely grained and amicable to carving, the wood is suitable for making idols and boxes of exquisite beauty. Major portion of the sandal wood oil is produced by steam distillation of the pulverized heart wood and root. The yield of oil varies from 1.5-2.0%. The main constituents of sandal wood oil are a and b santalols which account for 90-03% of the oil. Sandal tree starts flowering from 3rd or 4th year and flowering season generally lasts from February to April while fruiting takes place between July to October.
scientific name: Santalum album
Climate for sandalwood cultivation
Sandalwood tree can almost grow in every type soil, climate and temperature. Sandalwood tree crop requires hot atmosphere and it grows better in humid climatic conditions.
Sandalwood tree cultivation also needs the temperature in between 12° and 35°C. It is the perfect temperature for good growth of sandalwood tree. At 600 and 1050 meters altitudes, this sandalwood tree plant grows well.
Soil for sandalwood cultivation
If you are planning for the sandalwood tree cultivation then you may require well-drained soils which have a good organic object. The red sandy loam soils are also suitable for the sandalwood tree and you get the high yield crop.
A Soil test is must require for checking the nutrient requirements for the sandalwood plantation are present or not in the soil. Sandalwood tree cultivation requires pH of the soil in between 6.5 to 7.5 with a little bit of alkaline.
Propagation for sandalwood cultivation
The seeds of sandal wood germinate after monsoon under natural condition dispersed by birds. Artificial regeneration can be done by dibbling the seeds in the bushes and pits or sowing on mounds in the trench or raising the seedlings in the nursery in polybags. The seeds of host plants such as cassia siamea, calotropis gigantee, cajanus cajan are dibbled in the ratio 1:3. There is no fertilizer formulation for this tree but 12to 15 doses of commonly used fertilizers viz.; nitrogen, phosphorus and potash can be applied per year as in other medicinal and aromatic plants
Nutrient management for sandalwood cultivation
Any medicinal should be grown without any chemical fertilizers and use of pesticides. well rotten farm yard manure like cow dung,green compost, varmi-compost or any manure made from green leaves can be used.
Irrigation for sandalwood cultivation
Trees can grows vigorously in monsoon, but in summer it requires water. Irrigation dose not required year round but mostly for the post monsoon period i.e.from December to May.irrigation depends upon the soil moisture retention capacity and season.
Harvesting of sandalwood cultivation
In the sandalwood, sapwood and heartwood are well demarcated. The heart wood formation is good in trees of 30-60 years attaining a girth of 40-60 cm. On an average, a tree with 50-60cm girth may yield 19-50kg of heartwood.