On-season and Off-season tillage

 On-season and Off-season tillage

On-season tillage

✓ On-season tillage refers to tillage activities performed in the same season or at the start of the crop season for the purpose of growing crops.

✓ They can be used for both prior and post-cultivation purposes.

Off-season tillage:

✓ Off-season tillage refers to tillage activities used to prepare the soil for the following main season crop. Post-harvest tillage, summer tillage, winter tillage, and fallow tillage are examples of off-season tillage.

Special purpose tillage: Special purpose tillage refers to tillage operations that are carried out for a specific reason.

They are:

a. Sub-soiling: To decrease compaction, a specific tillage operation (chiselling) is used to break the hard pan beneath the plough layer. Subsoiling is required every four to five years in areas where heavy machinery is used for field operations, sowing, harvesting, and transportation.

b. Clean tillage: It refers to the entire field’s soil being worked in such a way that no living plant is left untouched. It’s used to get rid of weeds, soil-borne pathogens, and pests.

c. Blind tillage: It refers to tillage done after seeding or planting the crop (in a sterile soil) either during the pre-emergence stage of the crop plants or during their early phases of growth so that crop plants (sugarcane, potato, etc.) are not injured, but excess plants and broadleaved weeds are uprooted.

d. Dry tillage: Dry tillage is used for crops that are seeded or planted in a dry land environment with enough moisture for seed germination. Broadcast rice, jute, wheat, oilseed crops, legumes, potato, and vegetable crops are all good candidates. Dry tillage is used when there is enough moisture in the soil (21-23 percent ).

e. Wet tillage or puddling: Wet tillage, also known as puddling, is a type of tillage that is performed on soil that has standing water. Ploughing repeatedly in standing water until the soil becomes soft and muddy is known as a puddling operation. Puddling generates an impermeable layer beneath the surface, reducing water loss through deep percolation and providing a soft seed bed for rice planting.

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