Sowing is the placing of a specific quantity of seeds in the soil for germination and growth while planting is the placing of plant propagules (may be seedlings, cuttings, rhizomes, clones, tubers etc.) in the soil to grow as plants
Methods of Sowing
Seeds are sown directly in the field (seed bed) or in the nursery (nursery bed) where seedlings are raised and transplanted later. Direct seeding may be done by
(d) Sowing behind the country plough
(a) Broad casting – Broad casting is the scattering or spreading of the seeds on the soil, which may or may not be incorporated into the soil. Broadcasting of seeds may be done by hand, mechanical spreader or aeroplane. Broadcasting is the easy, quick and cheap method of seeding.
The difficulties observed in broadcasting are uneven distribution, improper placement of seeds and less soil cover and compaction. As all the seeds are not placed in uniform density and depth, there is no uniformity of germination, seedling vigour and establishment. It is mostly suited fo closely spaced and small seeded crops.
(b) Dibbling – It is the placing of seeds in a hole or pit made at a predetermined spacing and depth with a dibbler or planter or very often by hand. Dibbling is laborious, time consuming and expensive compared to broadcasting, but it requires less seeds and, gives rapid and uniform germination with good seedling vigour.
(c) Drilling – It is a practice of dropping seeds in a definite depth, covered with soil and compacted. Sowing implements like seed drill or seed cum fertilizer drill are used. Manures, fertilizers, soil amendments, pesticides, etc. may be applied along with seeds. Seeds are drilled continuously or at regular intervals in rows. It requires more time, energy and cost, but maintains uniform population per unit area. Rows are set according to the requirements.
(d) Sowing behind the country plough – It is an operation in which seeds are placed in the plough furrow either continuously or at required spacing by a man working behind a plough. When the plough takes the next adjacent furrow, the seeds in the previous furrow are closed by the soil closing the furrow. Depth of sowing is adjusted by adjusting the depth of the plough furrow. e.g., ground nut sowing in dry land areas of Tamil Nadu.
(e) Planting – Placing seeds or seed material firmly in the soil to grow.
(f) Transplanting – Planting seedlings in the main field after pulling out from the nursery. It is done to reduce the main field duration of the crops facilitating to grow more number of crops in an year. It is easy to give extra care for tender seedlings. For small seeded crops like rice and ragi which require shallow sowing and frequent irrigation for proper germination, raising nursery is the easiest way.