Rainfall is the ultimate source of all kind of water. Based on its sources of
availability it can be classified as surface water and subsurface water.
- Surface water includes precipitation (including rainfall and dew) water available
from river, tank, pond; Lake Etc., Besides, snowfall could able to contribute some
quantity of water in heavy snowfall area like Jammu, Kashmir and Himalaya regin.
- Subsurface water includes subsurface water contribution, underground water,
well water etc.
Seasons of rainfall can be classified s follows
1. Winter (Cold dry period – January – February
2. Summer (Hot weather period – March – May
3. Kharif (South-West monsoon) – June – September
4. Rabi (North-East monsoon) – October – December
It comprises the month June, July, August and September which contributes about
70% of rainfall to India except for extreme North of Jammu and Kashmir and extremes
South of Tamil Nadu. Hence the success of agriculture in India depends on timely onset,
adequate amount and even distribution of this South West Monsoon (SWM). This season
is also called as Kharif season.
North East monsoon
It comprises the months of October, November and December. North East
Monsoon (NEM) contributed rainfall to South Eastern part of peninsular India Tamil
Nadu receives its 60% of rainfall from NEM (North East Monsoon). This season is also
called as Rabi season.
It comprises of the month of January and February. It contributes very little
Comprises of the months of March, April and May and contributes little summer